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Question 1

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A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated is called _____

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[removed]a. a representative sample.

[removed]b. a case study.

[removed]c. a single-blind study.

[removed]d. a naturalistic observation.

Question 2

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A experiment in which two individuals are placed in separate rooms while one tries to send information and the other tries to receive it without use of any of the senses is using the _____ procedure.

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[removed]a. ESP

[removed]b. Ganzfeld

[removed]c. telepathy

[removed]d. double blind

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A large study of heart disease that included White and African-American participants considered the age and gender of the participants but not their socioeconomic status. The conclusion drawn by the researchers was that being an African American male places you at greater risk for heart disease than being a White male. The problem with this conclusion is _____

Select one:

[removed]a. no other races were included in the study.

[removed]b. we can’t tell if the variable is race or socioeconomic status.

[removed]c. there were no African-American researchers on the team.

[removed]d. we already knew African-Americans get more heart disease.

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A participant-related bias known as ageism results in _____

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[removed]a. failing to perceive the diversity among older adults.

[removed]b. excessive deference to older adults.

[removed]c. a reluctance to ask older adults to participate in research.

[removed]d. a tendency to describe all older adults in positive terms.

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A school psychologist would be most likely to _____

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[removed]a. conduct an experiment.

[removed]b. counsel a disruptive student.

[removed]c. treat a student with schizophrenia.

[removed]d. study teaching methods.

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ANo ___ is a measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another.

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[removed]a. independent variable

[removed]b. dependent variable

[removed]c. experimental effect

[removed]d. correlation

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According to research on sleep deprivation, a small amount of sleep loss ____

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[removed]a. decreases cognitive ability.

[removed]b. is not a problem at all.

[removed]c. is a problem only for women, not men.

[removed]d. does not affect people older than age 12.

Question 8

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Activated by the _____, gonads release _____

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[removed]a. thymus; estrogen.

[removed]b. pineal gland; testosterone.

[removed]c. pituitary; corticoids.

[removed]d. pituitary; sex hormones.

Question 9

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Any experiments that seemed to support the idea that ESP exists have not been able to be _____

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[removed]a. published.

[removed]b. peer-reviewed.

[removed]c. replicated.

[removed]d. funded.

Question 10

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Brain imaging studies support the conclusion that meditation _____

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[removed]a. is a form of sleep.

[removed]b. induces an altered state of consciousness.

[removed]c. is a quick fix for health problems.

[removed]d. is not helpful to health.

Question 11

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By using random samples, polling organizations can represent the view of the American public with a sample size starting from _____

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[removed]a. 100,000.

[removed]b. 1 million.

[removed]c. 100.

[removed]d. 1,000.

Question 12

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Carla was driving to work when she heard a report from a medical center on the radio saying, “Upon conception, the sex of the baby is determined by the person who is least stressed out.” Knowing Carla is a critical thinker, which of the following thoughts did she most likely have?

Select one:

[removed]a. “Because the report is from a medical center, it must be true.”

[removed]b. “Before I believe that report, I need to check other sources.”

[removed]c. “Wow, it must be true or they wouldn’t put it on the radio.”

[removed]d. “Wait until I tell my partner that he must have determined the sex of our two sons.”

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Conan brought his mother to the hospital when he noticed she couldn’t move one side of her body and had great difficulty speaking. The physician informed Conan that his mother may have had a stroke. He wanted to confirm this speculation by using an imaging device that utilized X-rays. Which of the following was used on Conan’s mother?

Select one:

[removed]a. MRI

[removed]b. CT scan

[removed]c. EEG

[removed]d. fMRI

Question 14

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Despite having a massive infection, Lindsey’s white blood cell count remained low. This could be due to a malfunction of her _____

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[removed]a. thymus.

[removed]b. parathyroid.

[removed]c. thyroid.

[removed]d. thalamus.

Question 15

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Diffusion tensor imaging would be the best choice to examine _____

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[removed]a. individual neuron bundles.

[removed]b. a tumor in the brain.

[removed]c. a sleep disorder.

[removed]d. glucose uptake in the brain.

Question 16

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Dr. Hernandez is researching the effect of a new treatment for depression. She is so excited about this treatment because she is sure it will help people. When she hands out the placebo pills, she is able to keep a neutral expression on her face. When she hands out the actual pills, she can’t help but let a little smile curl her lips and she bounces up and down very slightly due to her expectations the pill will really help these people. She is not aware she is doing anything different. As her student, you need to point this out to her to save the study from _____ bias.

Select one:

[removed]a. experimenter

[removed]b. participant

[removed]c. intentional

[removed]d. accidental

Question 17

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Dr. Maizenblu was testing out a new medication used to treat depression. He had 150 participants who had varying levels of depression. Because he wanted to see whether a new drug really worked, he separated the severely depressed from the mildly or moderately depressed. He then made sure the severely depressed group actually received the drug while the other group received the placebo. What error, if any, did Dr. Maizenblu make in this experiment?

Select one:

[removed]a. He made no error at all.

[removed]b. He did not have enough participants in the study.

[removed]c. He showed selection bias.

[removed]d. He showed unethical treatment of depressed people.

Question 18

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Dr. Rodriguez, an educational psychologist, looks at the student-environment interaction to determine how to improve a student’s performance. He is taking the _____ perspective.

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[removed]a. cognitive

[removed]b. evolutionary

[removed]c. sociocultural

[removed]d. behavioral

Question 19

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Dr. Solomon wants a record of the electrical activity in her patient’s brain during an epileptic seizure. She would schedule the patient for a _____ appointment.

Select one:

[removed]a. magnetic resonance imaging

[removed]b. electroencephalograph

[removed]c. positron-emission tomography

[removed]d. microelectrode testing

Question 20

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Experimental, placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated that using subliminal messages to control appetite or smoking have _____ effect on behavior.

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[removed]a. a slight

[removed]b. a powerful

[removed]c. a negative

[removed]d. no

Question 21

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Heather decides to seek out a therapist to help her work through feelings of anxiety. Her therapist allows her to direct the therapy sessions and discuss what she feels is relevant. Her therapist, who views Heather as an innately good person, also suggests she attend group therapy to learn how to make better choices for herself. Based on this information, to which school of thought does Heather’s therapist most likely adhere?

Select one:

[removed]a. Sociocultural

[removed]b. Psychoanalytic

[removed]c. Behaviorism

[removed]d. Humanistic

Question 22

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Holly quit smoking years ago, but sometimes she really misses the routine of going out for smoke breaks and starting the morning with coffee and a cigarette. At those times, Holly is struggling with _____

Select one:

[removed]a. tolerance.

[removed]b. psychological dependence.

[removed]c. physical dependence.

[removed]d. withdrawal.

Question 23

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How many physiological and psychological functions are affected by the circadian rhythms?

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[removed]a. two; sleep and wakefulness

[removed]b. three; sleep, wakefulness, and temperature

[removed]c. virtually every one that has been studied

[removed]d. four; sleep, wakefulness, temperature, and digestion

Question 24

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If we briefly flashed the image of an orange to the right field of vision of an individual after split-brain surgery, they will most likely say they see _____

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[removed]a. nothing.

[removed]b. an orange.

[removed]c. something but be unable to name it.

[removed]d. only something round.

Question 25

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If we were to design an experiment to test the hypothesis that aspirin takes headaches away, the independent variable would be _____ and the dependent variable would be _____

Select one:

[removed]a. headaches; aspirin.

[removed]b. aspirin; Tylenol.

[removed]c. aspirin; headaches.

[removed]d. measured; manipulated.

Question 26

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Immediately after firing, a neuron cannot fire for 1 to 2 milliseconds. This is called the _____ period.

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[removed]a. discharged

[removed]b. resting

[removed]c. refractory

[removed]d. potential

Question 27

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In the experimental method, the _____ is sometimes referred to as the treatment.

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[removed]a. independent variable

[removed]b. dependent variable

[removed]c. confounding variable

[removed]d. heuristic value

Question 28

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In the Lang study, aggression was measured by the intensity and duration of “shocks” the participants chose to deliver to the researcher’s accomplice. This was the _____ definition of aggression for this experiment.

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[removed]a. research

[removed]b. hypothetical

[removed]c. operational

[removed]d. controlled

Question 29

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Jacob had trouble matching his facial expressions to the appropriate emotion or correctly interpreting others’ emotional cues from their facial expressions. He needed more help from his _____

Select one:

[removed]a. mirror neurons.

[removed]b. social neurons.

[removed]c. interpretive neurons.

[removed]d. frontal lobes.

Question 30

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Kim wants to talk with a therapist who will see him in a positive light and respect his personal experience while helping him understand his feelings and create a meaningful life. Kim will be most satisfied with a therapist who takes the _____ perspective.

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[removed]a. psychoanalytic

[removed]b. humanistic

[removed]c. biological

[removed]d. sociocultural

Question 31

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Lateralization refers to which of the following?

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[removed]a. the idea that the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body

[removed]b. the notion that each hemisphere of the brain specializes in particular functions

[removed]c. the procedure in which the corpus callosum is severed

[removed]d. the inability to produce speech

Question 32

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Looking like leafless branches of a tree, the _____ are the primary receivers of signals from other neurons, although the _____ also receives signals directly.

Select one:

[removed]a. axon; dendrites

[removed]b. dendrites; soma

[removed]c. soma; dendrites

[removed]d. dendrites; axon

Question 33

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Lyta sustained damage to her left hemisphere. Which of these areas is she most likely to have difficulty with as a result of left hemisphere damage?

Select one:

[removed]a. language

[removed]b. control of the left side of her body

[removed]c. interpreting facial expressions

[removed]d. perceiving visual-spatial relationships

Question 34

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Malcolm is studying alone in his room when he hears a loud noise downstairs. His heart rate and respiration speed up. He wonders if a burglar has entered the house. When he looks downstairs, he sees that his cat just knocked over a plant. He begins to relax and his heart rate and breathing slow down. Which part of his nervous system is working to return him to a normal state?

Select one:

[removed]a. spinal cord

[removed]b. somatic nervous system

[removed]c. parasympathetic nervous system

[removed]d. central nervous system

Question 35

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Melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep and wakefulness, is produced by the _____ gland.

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[removed]a. pineal

[removed]b. pituitary

[removed]c. parathyroid

[removed]d. thymus

Question 36

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Moving toward the back of the head, the last area of the frontal lobe contains the _____

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[removed]a. visual cortex

[removed]b. sensory cortex

[removed]c. motor cortex

[removed]d. parietal lobe

Question 37

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Much of what we know about left and right hemisphere specializations comes from the study of people who had split-brain surgery. This surgery _____

Select one:

[removed]a. splits the lobes of the brain apart.

[removed]b. severs the corpus callosum between hemispheres.

[removed]c. severs the nerves from the spinal cord to the right hemisphere.

[removed]d. severs the substantianigra between hemispheres.

Question 38

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Neurotransmitters have distinct molecular shapes; so do the _____ they bind to.

Select one:

[removed]a. myelin sheaths

[removed]b. presynaptic neurons

[removed]c. vesicles

[removed]d. receptors

Question 39

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Nora has had hearing defects since she was a child. She is now 43 and a new procedure to regenerate hair cells in the auditory canal has helped her to have those hearing defects corrected. What most likely occurred in Nora’s brain as a result?

Select one:

[removed]a. Not much; she was too old to have much brain plasticity.

[removed]b. Areas of her brain involved in sound perception changed noticeably.

[removed]c. Auditory signals were rerouted to the better functioning visual cortex.

[removed]d. Broca’s area had trouble interpreting all the new sounds.

Question 40

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Our metabolism, the rate at which food is converted to energy, is controlled by a hormone released by the _____

Select one:

[removed]a. parathyroid.

[removed]b. adrenal glands.

[removed]c. pancreas.

[removed]d. thyroid.

Question 41

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Pruning is _____

Select one:

[removed]a. a process that eliminates unnecessary and redundant synapses.

[removed]b. a medical procedure used to remove brain tumors.

[removed]c. the death of brain cells due to disease or damage.

[removed]d. the shortening of dendrites to make them more efficient.

Question 42

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Psychology is _____

Select one:

[removed]a. a collection of theories that have yet to be tested out.

[removed]b. the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

[removed]c. the study of supernatural phenomena.

[removed]d. just various forms of therapy.

Question 43

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Research has shown that patients’ expectations of treatment effectiveness are affected by what a treatment provider is wearing. A white lab coat tends to increase their expectation of effectiveness. Sandra, a research assistant, had no preconceived ideas about her research project, but by chance she wore a white lab coat when working with experimental Group 1, but jeans and a t-shirt when working with experimental Group 2. This created a confounding variable. This confounding variable was a _____

Select one:

[removed]a. selection bias.

[removed]b. experimenter bias.

[removed]c. placebo effect.

[removed]d. random effect.

Question 44

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Samuel still felt enraged hours after he was cut off on the highway, and he wanted to hit somebody. This may be because his _____ glands are still signaling his brain, maintaining this response to the earlier threat.

Select one:

[removed]a. thymus

[removed]b. sex

[removed]c. pineal

[removed]d. adrenal

Question 45

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Sherrod sees himself as a thinker; he believes that his experience and behavior are shaped by how he perceives, thinks about, and remembers things. He would find a counselor who takes the _____ perspective most compatible with his beliefs.

Select one:

[removed]a. psychoanalytic

[removed]b. humanistic

[removed]c. cognitive

[removed]d. sociocultural

Question 46

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Slightly above the ears, the _____ lobes contain the primary _____ cortex, which receives sound input from our ears.

Select one:

[removed]a. auditory; temporal

[removed]b. temporal; auditory

[removed]c. hearing; sound

[removed]d. parietal; sensory

Question 47

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Speech sounds register first in the primary _____ cortex; they are then sent to _____ area where they are unscrambled into meaningful patterns of words.

Select one:

[removed]a. temporal; Broca’s

[removed]b. parietal; sensory

[removed]c. auditory; Wernicke’s

[removed]d. sensory; prefrontal

Question 48

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The area of the brain primarily responsible for higher mental processes such as thinking and language is the cerebral __

 

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