Indicate whether the following sentences (21-22) are or are not propositions:
21. Please remain alert and watch your step near the edge of the cliff.
22. Tourists are required to keep a distance of at least 500 metres from the volcano.
Each of the following sentences (23-25) contains multiple propositions. Copy and paste them into your answers page, and identify each individual propositions by underlining:
23. When the sun rises, the birds begin to sing and people begin their day.
24. Since television doesn’t make me think, I prefer books and the internet.
25. Everyone who has a car should give a friend a ride to the stadium to see U2.
Each of the following sentences (26-28) contains multiple propositions. Copy and paste them into your answers page, and UNDERLINE each individual proposition, indicating whether it is ASSERTED (by using bold) or merely EXPRESSED (by using italics):
26. If you see someone in trouble, you should help, since one day you might need help.
27. I’d like to go on a cruise or travel through Europe, so I’m saving my money.
28. The soldiers loaded up their gear, drove back to base, and enjoyed a hot meal.
29 Translate the following sentence into a standard proposition in non-metaphorical language:
“I could just kill those kids for leaving me such a mess to clean up!”
30. Explain why the following propositions either are or are not synonymous.
Section 4: Argument
Consider the following arguments, then place the propositions into their proper places in the diagrams:
[A1]The Beatles were the single most influential band in the history of Rock’n’Roll. [A2]By 1964, the momentum of Rock’n’Roll had nearly died altogether. [A3]But then came the “British Invasion” led by the Beatles. [A4]Their smooth, catchy pop hooks, like those heard in “Love Me Do” or “She Loves You” were a dramatic change from the more familiar sounds of the better-known American bands of the day, [A5]thus permanently altering the sound of Rock’n’Roll. But their influence didn’t stop there, because by the time the American radio landscape had changed to reflect their early influence, [A6]the Beatles were ready to change their own sound once again with the release of the album Sgt. Pepper with its psychedelic sensibilities, [A7]arguably the most influential Rock’n’Roll album.
[A1] the Beatles had the greatest influence on Rock ‘n’ Roll
[A2] in 1964, Rock ‘n’ Roll was nearly dead
[A3] the Beatles led the “British Invasion” of popular music
[A4] the Beatles had a different sound than other popular music
[A5] The Beatles changed the sound of Rock ‘n’ Roll
[A6] the Beatles’ album “Sgt. Pepper” had a new and different sound
[A7] “Sgt. Pepper” was the most influential Rock ‘n’ Roll album
(33) A7 (34) + (35)
(B1)The image of Rock’n’Roll which the Beatles stepped into, that of the wholesome teenager, was forever changed by the style and music of the Rolling Stones into a “bad boy” image, which still colours Rock’n’Roll today. (B2)The strutting, pouting antics of lead singer Mick Jagger and the spaced-out, dangling-cigarette image of Keith Richards stood in stark contrast to the more well-groomed appearance of the Beatles. (B3)Along with the image, though, the openly anti-establishment political overtones of the Stones’ lyrics projected a strong iconoclasm, one still emulated today, which the more mainstream Beatles lacked. (B4)On the whole, the Rolling Stones were more influential because they left an indelible mark on the image of the Rock Star.
[B1] the Rolling Stones influenced the image of Rock ‘n’ Roll by adopting a ‘bad boy’ persona
[B2] the Rolling Stones rejected a wholesome image for a more rebellious image
[B3] the Rolling Stones adopted an openly iconoclastic social and political outlook
[B4] the Rolling Stones had the greatest influence on Rock ‘n’ Roll
Conclusion: (40) Section 5: Informal Fallacies
Which informal fallacy is committed in each of the following passages?
41. Officer, I’m not at fault. I’m a stockbroker, I drive a BMW, and I’m wearing a $3000 Armani suit. I’m a good citizen. Look at this guy’s broken down piece of crap car. Look at his dreadlocks. Why would anyone believe that dirty hippy over me?
42. “But I don’t want to go among mad people,” said Alice. “Oh, you can’t help that,” said the Cat: “we’re all mad here. I’m mad. You’re mad.” “How do you know I’m mad?” said Alice. “You must be,” said the Cat, “or you wouldn’t have come here.
43. Dolphins spend their entire lives in the sea. Former NFL quarterback Dan Marino was a Dolphin, therefore he must have spent his entire life in the sea.
44. Senator Joseph McCarthy: “I do not have much information on this except the general statement of the agency that there is nothing in the files to disprove his Communist connections.”
45. Either men are superior to women, or women are superior to men. But since men are not superior, it must be that women are.
46. This is a really nice deli. It’d sure be a shame if it burned down somehow, but if you pay my brother and me $250 every month, we’ll make sure that doesn’t happen.
47. Global warming is already an ecological disaster, and is growing worse all the time. Because of the melting polar ice cap, polar bears are having to swim many more miles than they ever have before just to find food. Many of them, unable to find enough to feed even themselves, are abandoning their cubs to a gruesome fate: to die of starvation, alone and helpless on the ice. We must all do our part to slow the process by reducing our own carbon footprints before it’s too late.
48. I’m not buying all your arguments about same-sex marriage. I was raised to believe that marriage is between one man and one woman.
49. My little brother just started smoking. Our cousin did too, and now he’s in prison.
50. Every time I’m coming up to bat, if I chew a fresh piece of gum, I get a hit. Last time I got to bat, I was out of gum and I struck out, but this time I have a new piece, so I’m sure to get on base.