# IS THERE ANY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN STATISTICS AND SCIENCE SUBJECTS?

### IS THERE ANY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN STATISTICS AND SCIENCE SUBJECTS?

Mini Research Proposal

This written assignment is based on the work conducted in the “Z, T, or Chi-Square Test Study” discussion forum from last week. Based on this initial work, feedback received, and additional research, you should submit a mini research proposal that calls for the use of a z test, t test, or Chi-Square test.

Please include the following in the research proposal:

Introduction (1-2 paragraphs)

Present the research question of interest.

Explain how the chosen statistical test applies to this research question.

Provide the statistical notation and written explanations for the null and alternative hypotheses.

Explain the types of errors that can occur.

Methods

Participants (1 paragraph)

List how many participants will be selected.

Identify who will be the participants and their major demographic characteristics (e.g., sex, age, etc.).

Explain how participants will be selected for the study.

Procedures (1-2 paragraphs)

Identify the variables in the study.

Describe each variable’s scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio) and characteristics (i.e., discrete vs. continuous, qualitative vs. categorical, etc.).

Provide an operational definition for each variable, explaining how the variables will be measured.

Results (1-2 paragraphs)

Describe the statistical test that will be conducted. Be sure to include why the test was chosen and why it is appropriate for this study.

Identify the information that will be obtained from the results of this test and what will be needed to draw conclusions regarding the hypotheses.

Discussion (1 paragraph)

Identify any expected biases, assumptions, or faults with the proposed study and the use of the identified statistical test.

Explain what conclusions can and cannot be made for this study, and using this statistical test.

Describe the practical significance or importance of the results.

The paper should be APA formatted as a research proposal, and approximately 1000 to 1350 words of content. Include a title page, and a reference page that includes any resources utilized. Students should submit their paper by Day 7.

Point Value: 7 Points

Weekly Learning Outcome Alignment: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

———————————————————————————————–MY WORK WAS:

Identify an appropriate research question that would require the use of a z-, t-, or Chi-Square test to answer. Pick the question from the list created in Week 1 or identify a new question if there are no appropriate ones from Week 1.

Research question #7.

Is there any relationship between gender and student performance in statistics and science subjects?

The variables, in this case, will be the average performance of the students in the subjects of focus, they will be categorized according to their gender. These variables can actually be measured using the ratio level of measurements by some mathematical operations. In this case, an average will be calculated of both genders performance on the subjects being studied. The data in this study will depict some continuous characteristics.

Describe why this question is appropriate for the selected statistical test.

Solution

The test to be used in this question is independent T-test. Independent T-test compares the means of two groups that are not related in any way. Performance of males and females are to be investigated to check whether the gender contributes to passing or failing statistics and science subjects. Performance for males is to be compared with the one for females. T- Statics compares their means and tells us whether there males or females perform well in statists and science subjects. Data for performance is continuous. This is a requirement when using t-test.

Identify the variables in this study and each of their attributes: discrete or continuous, quantitative or categorical, the scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio), an independent or dependent.

Solution

The variables here are:

Gender – is a categorical variable taking two categories, that is, male or female.

Performance – is a continuous taking real numbers

There is no dependent variable in the case of independent T-test statistics.

Explain how the variables do or do not fit the qualifications for the selected statistical test

Solution

Both variables fit the independent t-test statistics selected. Performance is categorized into two groups, that is, Males and Females. The performance means are then compared in the two groups.

Provide a written explanation for the null and alternative hypotheses.

Solution

The null hypothesis indicated with H0, states that there no relationship between gender and performance. Alternative hypothesis H1, indicates there is a significant mean deference when comparing results for males and females.

This can be written as;

H0: μ1 = μ2 = 0

H1: μ1 ≠ μ2 ≠ 0

Rejecting the null hypothesis will means there is confidence in failing to reject the alternative hypothesis.

Describe the types of errors that could occur.

Solution

Type I error and type II error can occur on the testing hypothesis. Type I error occurs when a true null hypothesis is rejected. Type II error occurs when one fails to reject a false null hypothesis.

In this case, concluding that there is a difference in means while in a real sense there isn’t, is a type I error and concluding there is no difference in means while there is, is a type II error.

Research question # 9.

What is the relationship between mortality rates and poverty level?

This research question is intended to establish the existence of any relationship between the mortality rates within a population and the poverty level of that population. The variables in these case will be poverty and death rate which will be measured using the ordinal level scale because it will be giving the degree to which these variables affect each other. The variables, in this case, will be having some continuous characteristics because they rise and fall at some level.

Describe why this question is appropriate for the selected statistical test.

Solution

Chi-square test is used in this question to determine the relationship between poverty levels and mortality rates. It tests whether the cause of mortality rate is poverty or its just by chance.

Identify the variables in this study and each of their attributes: discrete or continuous, quantitative or categorical, the scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio), and independent or dependent.

Solution

Our variables here are;

Mortality rate which is a dependent ratio variable

Level of poverty which can be (High, medium, low), is a categorical independent variable

Explain how the variables do or do not fit the qualifications for the selected statistical test

Solution

Mortality rates can be taken as “high” or “low” to make it suitable for using the chi-square test. Using it as a continuous variable will make it unsuitable for the test. Poverty levels (high, medium and low), perfectly suits Chi-test statistics.

Provide a written explanation for the null and alternative hypotheses.

Solution

The null hypothesis indicated with H0, states that there no relationship between mortality rates and poverty. Alternative hypothesis H1, indicates there is a significant relationship between the number of people dying and their poverty levels.

This can be written as;

H0: β1 = β2 = 0

H1: β1 ≠ β2 ≠ 0

Describe the types of errors that could occur.

Solution

Type I error and type II error can occur on the testing hypothesis. Type I error occurs when a true null hypothesis is rejected. Type II error occurs when one fails to reject a false null hypothesis.

In this case, concluding that poverty causes death while it is not the cause of death, is type II error while concluding that they don’t relate while they do actually, is type I error.————————————————————————————-THE DISCUSSION WAS:

Z, T, or Chi-Square Test Study

Background

During this week you will identify a research question created in Week 1 that would be best answered by any of the following statistical tests: z test, t test for single sample, independent samples t test, repeated measures t test, or Chi-Square test. This discussion will help you work towards your “Week 3 Assignment 2.” If there are no research questions that fit any of these types of statistical analyses, decide on a new question before moving forward with the assignment.

Discussion Assignment Requirements

Initial Posting – In your initial posting for this assignment, include the following:

Identify an appropriate research question that would require the use of a z-, t-, or Chi-Square test to answer. Pick the question from the list created in Week 1 or identify a new question if there are no appropriate ones from Week 1.

Describe why this question is appropriate for the selected statistical test.

Identify the variables in this study and each of their attributes: discrete or continuous, quantitative or categorical, scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio), and independent or dependent.

Explain how the variables do or do not fit the qualifications for the selected statistical test.

Provide a written explanation for the null and alternative hypotheses.

Describe the types of errors that could occur.

This written assignment is based on the work conducted in the “Z, T, or Chi-Square Test Study” discussion forum from last week. Based on this initial work, feedback received, and additional research, you should submit a mini research proposal that calls for the use of a z test, t test, or Chi-Square test.

Please include the following in the research proposal:

Introduction (1-2 paragraphs)

Present the research question of interest.

Explain how the chosen statistical test applies to this research question.

Provide the statistical notation and written explanations for the null and alternative hypotheses.

Explain the types of errors that can occur.

Methods

Participants (1 paragraph)

List how many participants will be selected.

Identify who will be the participants and their major demographic characteristics (e.g., sex, age, etc.).

Explain how participants will be selected for the study.

Procedures (1-2 paragraphs)

Identify the variables in the study.

Describe each variable’s scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio) and characteristics (i.e., discrete vs. continuous, qualitative vs. categorical, etc.).

Provide an operational definition for each variable, explaining how the variables will be measured.

Results (1-2 paragraphs)

Describe the statistical test that will be conducted. Be sure to include why the test was chosen and why it is appropriate for this study.

Identify the information that will be obtained from the results of this test and what will be needed to draw conclusions regarding the hypotheses.

Discussion (1 paragraph)

Identify any expected biases, assumptions, or faults with the proposed study and the use of the identified statistical test.

Explain what conclusions can and cannot be made for this study, and using this statistical test.

Describe the practical significance or importance of the results.

The paper should be APA formatted as a research proposal, and approximately 1000 to 1350 words of content. Include a title page, and a reference page that includes any resources utilized. Students should submit their paper by Day 7.

Point Value: 7 Points

Weekly Learning Outcome Alignment: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

———————————————————————————————–MY WORK WAS:

Identify an appropriate research question that would require the use of a z-, t-, or Chi-Square test to answer. Pick the question from the list created in Week 1 or identify a new question if there are no appropriate ones from Week 1.

Research question #7.

Is there any relationship between gender and student performance in statistics and science subjects?

The variables, in this case, will be the average performance of the students in the subjects of focus, they will be categorized according to their gender. These variables can actually be measured using the ratio level of measurements by some mathematical operations. In this case, an average will be calculated of both genders performance on the subjects being studied. The data in this study will depict some continuous characteristics.

Describe why this question is appropriate for the selected statistical test.

Solution

The test to be used in this question is independent T-test. Independent T-test compares the means of two groups that are not related in any way. Performance of males and females are to be investigated to check whether the gender contributes to passing or failing statistics and science subjects. Performance for males is to be compared with the one for females. T- Statics compares their means and tells us whether there males or females perform well in statists and science subjects. Data for performance is continuous. This is a requirement when using t-test.

Identify the variables in this study and each of their attributes: discrete or continuous, quantitative or categorical, the scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio), an independent or dependent.

Solution

The variables here are:

Gender – is a categorical variable taking two categories, that is, male or female.

Performance – is a continuous taking real numbers

There is no dependent variable in the case of independent T-test statistics.

Explain how the variables do or do not fit the qualifications for the selected statistical test

Solution

Both variables fit the independent t-test statistics selected. Performance is categorized into two groups, that is, Males and Females. The performance means are then compared in the two groups.

Provide a written explanation for the null and alternative hypotheses.

Solution

The null hypothesis indicated with H0, states that there no relationship between gender and performance. Alternative hypothesis H1, indicates there is a significant mean deference when comparing results for males and females.

This can be written as;

H0: μ1 = μ2 = 0

H1: μ1 ≠ μ2 ≠ 0

Rejecting the null hypothesis will means there is confidence in failing to reject the alternative hypothesis.

Describe the types of errors that could occur.

Solution

Type I error and type II error can occur on the testing hypothesis. Type I error occurs when a true null hypothesis is rejected. Type II error occurs when one fails to reject a false null hypothesis.

In this case, concluding that there is a difference in means while in a real sense there isn’t, is a type I error and concluding there is no difference in means while there is, is a type II error.

Research question # 9.

What is the relationship between mortality rates and poverty level?

This research question is intended to establish the existence of any relationship between the mortality rates within a population and the poverty level of that population. The variables in these case will be poverty and death rate which will be measured using the ordinal level scale because it will be giving the degree to which these variables affect each other. The variables, in this case, will be having some continuous characteristics because they rise and fall at some level.

Describe why this question is appropriate for the selected statistical test.

Solution

Chi-square test is used in this question to determine the relationship between poverty levels and mortality rates. It tests whether the cause of mortality rate is poverty or its just by chance.

Identify the variables in this study and each of their attributes: discrete or continuous, quantitative or categorical, the scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio), and independent or dependent.

Solution

Our variables here are;

Mortality rate which is a dependent ratio variable

Level of poverty which can be (High, medium, low), is a categorical independent variable

Explain how the variables do or do not fit the qualifications for the selected statistical test

Solution

Mortality rates can be taken as “high” or “low” to make it suitable for using the chi-square test. Using it as a continuous variable will make it unsuitable for the test. Poverty levels (high, medium and low), perfectly suits Chi-test statistics.

Provide a written explanation for the null and alternative hypotheses.

Solution

The null hypothesis indicated with H0, states that there no relationship between mortality rates and poverty. Alternative hypothesis H1, indicates there is a significant relationship between the number of people dying and their poverty levels.

This can be written as;

H0: β1 = β2 = 0

H1: β1 ≠ β2 ≠ 0

Describe the types of errors that could occur.

Solution

Type I error and type II error can occur on the testing hypothesis. Type I error occurs when a true null hypothesis is rejected. Type II error occurs when one fails to reject a false null hypothesis.

In this case, concluding that poverty causes death while it is not the cause of death, is type II error while concluding that they don’t relate while they do actually, is type I error.————————————————————————————-THE DISCUSSION WAS:

Z, T, or Chi-Square Test Study

Background

During this week you will identify a research question created in Week 1 that would be best answered by any of the following statistical tests: z test, t test for single sample, independent samples t test, repeated measures t test, or Chi-Square test. This discussion will help you work towards your “Week 3 Assignment 2.” If there are no research questions that fit any of these types of statistical analyses, decide on a new question before moving forward with the assignment.

Discussion Assignment Requirements

Initial Posting – In your initial posting for this assignment, include the following:

Identify an appropriate research question that would require the use of a z-, t-, or Chi-Square test to answer. Pick the question from the list created in Week 1 or identify a new question if there are no appropriate ones from Week 1.

Describe why this question is appropriate for the selected statistical test.

Identify the variables in this study and each of their attributes: discrete or continuous, quantitative or categorical, scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio), and independent or dependent.

Explain how the variables do or do not fit the qualifications for the selected statistical test.

Provide a written explanation for the null and alternative hypotheses.

Describe the types of errors that could occur.