German Restaurants in China

Summarize in ppt

Acknowledgement

I owe my foremost gratitude to my supervisor, Professor Michael who took keen interest in ensuring that I complete the dissertation. My advisor proved helpful in all aspects for he enabled me present my ideas about the subject with ease. The guidance offered during the process is the result I celebrate today. His professional guidance helped in me handle participants professionally the interviews. Moreover, his constant availability and closed-door discussions about the direction of the dissertation is in part what I am fortunate about today. Professor Michael proved instrumental from the conception of the dissertation to this far.
I would not forget to enlist the interests that my friends and classmates had in my dissertation. Their brilliant expertise is inherent in the paper I present today. Their keen interest in ensuring that my research adopted the right models is in part what has made me realize the objective of the paper. I am humbled by your support!
My friends, classmates and the entire USJ family deserve an applause. I enjoyed the discussions and the late engagements we had to ensure I completed the dissertation within the shortest time possible. Indeed, even as I complete my studies, I am inspired that I need most of these friends in the future. Thank you!
In conclusion, I am grateful to my family; my loving mother and father for their support during my academic endeavor. Their compassion, patience and financial assistance is what I enlist today. Thank you!

Abstract

Restaurants continue to develop in the present times. As such, the concern for the restaurants is to attract new and retain old customers through provision of unique cuisines and services. The dissertation provides an analysis of strategies that can be adopted to enhance satisfaction of customers in Macau. The paper explores the strategies in threefold: 1) analysis of the variance in satisfaction of customers in the German restaurants operating in China and compare with those located in Macau. This approach will help contextualize the perceptions of the Chinese about new brands. 2) Explore the needs, satisfaction levels, segmentation of consumers based on educational and age as defined by the many changes in China. 3) Augment conceptualization of consumer satisfaction through an empirical interpretation of results obtained in the Chinese market. Significantly, the study observes that launching a new product in a new market involves a chain of initiatives and behavior change, which basically is defined as a perceptive experience. However, the two factors that determine adoption of the new brand in China include growth and development of the enterprise. Moreover, the results reported that ambiance, quality of the cuisine are key factors in customer satisfaction in Macau.
Table of Contents
Acknowledgement 1
Abstract 2
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 5
1.1 Background of research 5
1.2 Rationale and significance 7
1.3 Research questions 7
1.4 Research objectives 7
1.5 Outline of the dissertation 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1. Introduction 9
2.2. German Restaurants & German Cuisine 9
2.2.1. German Restaurants 9
2.2.2. German Cuisine 10
2.3. German Restaurants in China 13
2.4. consumer behavior in China 15
2.5. Customer Satisfaction Theory 17
2.6. Customer Satisfaction Model 18
2.6.1. Responsiveness 19
2.6.2. Product quality 20
2.6.3. Price 21
2.6.4. Environment 21
2.6.5. Atmosphere 22
2.7. Summary 23
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 24
3.1. Introduction 24
3.2. Research Design 24
3.3 Sampling procedure and sample size 25
3.4 Questionnaire Design 26
3.5 Data Collection Strategy 27
3.6. Data Analysis 28
3.7. The validity and reliability of the data 28
3.8. Ethical Considerations 29
3.9 Summary Remarks 30
CHAPTER FOUR: FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS 31
4.1. Introduction 31
4.2. Analysis of the data 31
4.2.1 General information 31
4.2.2 Responsiveness 33
4.2.3 Food quality 35
4.2.4 Price of products 37
4.2.5 Environment 39
4.2.6 Atmosphere 43
4.3 Chapter summary 47
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 48
5.1 Introduction 48
5.2 Discussion of findings 48
5.3 Implications of the findings 51
5.4 Contribution to research 52
5.5 Limitations of the research 52
5.6. Conclusion 53
Appendix 1: Interview Questionnaire 54
Appendix 2問卷調查 56
Appendix 3: References 59
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1 Description of respondents 31
Table 4.2: General information 32
Table 4.3: Summary of responsiveness 33
Table 4.4: The findings are summarized of food quality 35
Table 4.5 findings on the price of products 37
Table 4.6: findings of the environment 40
Table 4.6: findings of the atmosphere 43

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of research

Globalization has impacted business activities directly by enabling the transfer and integration of cultures across different regions of the world. Crucial factor in globalization is diet and cuisine which appear to be community specific. The German diet is commonplace in many cities of the world. Special German meals include currywurst, Ein-top, spatzle, egg noodles etc. Usually, these foods are prepared with cabbages, potatoes, curry sausages and even pastry. the German meals owe their common presence to widespread establishment of restaurants that serve such meals (Macleod 2004; Marsh and Inoguchi 2007). Additionally, globalization has immensely influenced the development of restaurants serving German cuisine since business establishment run on German philanthropists usually depend on such restaurants for their consumption needs. The migration and immigration of Germans across the world is a key agitator to the development of German restaurants in the major cities in the world. Germans are known for their excellent business and trading competence which points to their widespread presence in major world economies. As such, global policy is defined by investment initiatives and efficient migration policies. Considerably, a large number of Germans continue to live in other countries. The demand for these foods by the Germans has led to the creation of the restaurants that serve German diet across the major cities of the world. Additionally, the local people who hail from varied different cultures have also enjoyed the culture and cuisine that traditionally belonged to Germans. In most cases, the restaurants have incorporated the local cuisines and flavors into the dishes that previously belonged to German menu. Considerably, the restaurants targeted the foodstuffs that had roots to the local residents. According to Inoguchi and Marsh (2007), German restaurants have been successful in influencing local consumers, who in most occasions have included the German cuisine to their menu.
China is one of the prominent economies that have successfully exploited globalization and its associated benefits such as the Foreign Direct Investment and migration to improve its trade and business patterns. Moreover, the increase influx of German firms in the Chines market has enhanced development of restaurants that serve German menu. Essentially, Macau is an administrative region in China upon which several initiatives to develop restaurants and restaurants have taken course. Furthermore, Macau residents are known for their quick adoption of foreign cultures. As such the residents of Macau are easily attracted to the foreign foods, and the cultures. Kan et al., argues that the ballooning demand for German diets have necessitated development of the restaurants in the Chinese market (2008). Also, Macleod (2004) maintained that the prevailing economic environment in China has created market opportunity for the restaurants serving foreign cultures to sprout in China. In conclusion, these factors establish the scope of the research, and defines the most viable approach upon which German restaurants can be developed in Macau. However, upon consideration of the existing literature, it was revealed that there are no previous studies that explored the German restaurants in the city.

1.2 Rationale and significance

The present proposition is a synthesis of the German restaurants with special attention on consumer satisfaction. In this analysis the factors that promote the establishment of a new restaurant in Macau are adequately explored. The information ensures promotes understanding of strategies used during the introduction the German diets in the region. It is upon such foundations that the scope and projections for entrepreneurship in the industry has sprang in the hospitality industry in the region. The research rationale is to contextualize the growth of local market in the wake of increased competition within a boundless economic block.
The study uses an exploratory approach to determine the place of German restaurants in Macau suing the customer satisfaction model. The research will develop an understanding of the perceptions and expectations of customers these restaurants.

1.3 Research questions

The realize the objective of the dissertation, research question is outlined. It is after answering the question that the study will be completed. The research question is: how German menu can be adopted in Macau.

1.4 Research objectives

The research objectives will help in realizing the aim of the investigation. The objectives include:
i. To understand the operations of the German restaurants
ii. To analyze the level of customer satisfaction in a German restaurant in Macau
iii. To determine strategies to support the adoption of German menu in Macau

1.5 Outline of the dissertation

The dissertation is divided into five chapters with each chapter addressing a specific subject about the topic. These chapters are organized as below:
i. Chapter one- Introduction: The chapter presents the background information about the topic under review, the rationale and significance of the study. Additionally, the chapter provides the research question and the objectives for conducting the study.
ii. Chapter two- Literature Review: The chapter provides an appraisal of past literature on the topic. The customer satisfaction model is used as the background upon which the study variables will be evaluated.
iii. Chapter three- Research Methodology: The chapter provides the process that will be used to answer the research question. It includes data collection methods, data analysis methods, and the methods of sampling used.
iv. Chapter four- Data presentation and findings: The chapter outlines the data collected from the field, summarized in tables, and figures.
v. Chapter five- Discussions and Recommendations: the chapter wraps up the study with analyzed results, proposes recommendations about the research objectives and draws a conclusion about the study.

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Introduction

This section details information obtained from reliable academic sources as it regards German restaurants and cuisines. Firstly, the section presents a synopsis and the history of German restaurants and cuisines and their introduction in China. Secondly, the chapter focuses on the customer satisfaction theory to offer a comprehensive understanding of the extent of customer satisfaction with German restaurants and cuisines.

2.2. German Restaurants & German Cuisine

In this part of the literature review, the great focus will be on the German restaurants and Cookeries. The section will offer adequate information about the history and behavior of customers in German restaurants.

2.2.1. German Restaurants

A great deal of literature exists about German restaurants which provide sufficient information about the establishment of German restaurants. According to BizPlanDB (2014), customers in German restaurants dine and pay for German cuisines offered in these restaurants. According to the German culture, although customers dine together, each pays for their expenses in the restaurants. Goethe Universitat (2014) further suggest that the bar attendants and waiters in German restaurants receive between 5 to 10 percent of the aggregate sum made by customers. Besides, Goethe (2014) notes that it is ethical to switch off or put in silent mode the mobile phones while dining or receiving a service at German restaurants. Punctuality is also integral to German restaurants. As such, guests and customers are expected to be punctual or notify the relevant persons about their lateness. Upon receiving the services, customers are expected to give feedback about the services offered. For instance, Goethe Universitat (2014) highlights that guests are supposed to make calls a day after receiving German restaurants services to show satisfaction and appreciation of hospitality of the restaurants.
Not only are customers supposed to display dining etiquette in German restaurants, but also table manners. Goethe Universitat suggests that according to the German culture, people are not allowed to sit down unless they are asked to do so. Hence, in German restaurants, customers do no sit down until they are asked to sit. Also, it is the responsibility of the restaurants’ attendants to serve the customers and not vice versa. The restaurant owners are also not required to ask customers about their preferences but instead grant them autonomy to eat whatever they want. It is also unethical for customers to rest their elbows on the table but they ensure that they place their hands beside the plates. Notably, Goethe Universitat (2014) highlights that customers in German restaurants are not required to eat immediately after they are served, but they are supposed to eat when the host wishes them a good appetite, ‘Guten Appetit.’ In addition, customers are supposed to clear their food to be considered ethical in German restaurants.

2.2.2. German Cuisine

Similar to any culture, food is pivotal to German culture. Nevertheless, globalization has greatly impacted the preparation and consumption of food. Nolen (2015) highlights that; the variations in food preparation and consumption have been influenced greatly by diversity in culture. Contextually, preparation of German cuisines was by far influenced by European culture as it moved towards Asia. Food consumption and types specifically were influenced by the growth of rural to urban areas (Chandravati Group of Institution Bharatpur, 2017). Given that Germans prefer healthy meals, Spohn (2012) suggests that German restaurants delight in preparing healthy meals to align with the German preferences. As such, the restaurants rely on fresh and finest ingredients in preparing the meals. Of importance is that, upon consultation with restaurants’ staff, German restaurants provide ‘a la carte’ menu to customers who request for special food services.
According to Spohn (2012), a structure of a typical German food serving includes a before noon, mid-noon, lunch, after lunch, and nightfall meal. At present, German restaurants offer various types of foods and eating outlets such as canteens, pastry, ethnic, and street and fast food centers. Most Germans prefer outside catering eateries such as cafe food and snacks. The restaurants are founded on beers and foods which vary across various German cities. Among the German cuisines, the most valued meal is the Christmas dinner. Germans also prefer foods from German restaurants during occasions such as marriages, anniversaries, chargrilling, harvesting, Easter, Ascension Day, among others. Other special food occasions include Sundays and vacations where most customers eat from restaurants and snack bars (Spohn, 2012). From the structure of German cuisines, Heinzelmann (2008) notes that the most preferred serving is the afternoon coffee and cakes served from German cafes and restaurants.
Types of German cuisines are classified into German food and beverages. According to Rehder (2013) and Heinzelmann (2008), most of the German cuisines are prepared from bread spelled, root vegetable, tuber soup, plum acid, dumpling noodles, pasta, bread, dumpling, rice, seeds, and other ingredients. Germans also consume various kinds of meat such as beef, pork, chicken, veal, mutton, etc. Since German culture is known for meat products, most of the German cuisines serve meat dishes to its customers. Although there are various kinds of food served in German restaurants, Heinzelmann (2008) argues that Germans prefer bread for morning and night meals. Morning and night meals must be healthy and consumed in an organized manner. Accordingly, a typical German breakfast consists of brotchen or rolls of different kinds. On the other hand, supper includes Abendbrot, a salad or vegetable mishmash comprising of bread, sausages, and cheese. German meals also incorporate bratwurst, a type of sausage.
Due to the fact that Germans prefer healthy and hearty meals, German restaurants incorporate bread portions of bread and meat to cater to these needs. According to Oklahoma State University, (n.d.), the various kinds of healthy meals include; Cream Strudel, Potato Salad, Wiener Schnitzel, Sauerkraut Salad, Apple Strudel, Sauerkraut, Sauerbraten, pancakes, baked Asparagus, Scrambled pancakes, Spatzle, and Asparagus.
With reference to the German Food Guide, German cuisines are classified into North and South German cooking styles (German Food Guide, 2017). The cooking styles are classified based on the region, culture, and economics and which mirror the cultural and social differences in German culture. The cooking styles also depend on the weather, surroundings, and beliefs of the region.
German cuisines also include German beers and wines with German beers having an important position globally. Inoguchi & Marsh (2007) notes that in German regions such as Bavaria, a particular kind of beer prepared from lager or wheat has a unique flavor and impression. This connotes that German beers are unique in preparation and aroma. While there are beer legislatures in most states, the great reubgeutsgebot (Bavarian Purity Law of 1516) protects the German foodstuffs by instituting the right ingredients for beer products. With over 1,341 beer companies producing over 5,000 beer brands in Germany, the right components for making beer include water, hops, and malt. Local and regional breweries have fuelled growth in Germany with a significant change in the restaurants and beer industries. The various types of German beers include Pils, Dunkel, Alt, Weissbier, and Kolsch. As described by Inoguchi & marsh (2007), the German wines include White and Red wines. German wines originate from the upper and middle Rhine River and its tributaries. It is worth noting that German breweries and restaurants are at the forefront of the production and supply of wines in the country. This provides for high-quality dining and eventually attracts a lot of consumers. Among the most selling German red wines are Spatburgunder and Dornfelder while the white wines include Riesling and Silvaner. Following the rapid changes accompanying globalization, Nolen and Nolen (2015) suggest that the preference in red wine over white wine in Germany has increased dramatically.

2.3. German Restaurants in China

Since the establishment of German restaurants, German cuisines have gained significant popularity globally (Zeng & Szolnoki (2014). As such, German restaurants have expanded and established in most parts of the world with notable growth in China. The exponential growth of German restaurants in China is due to the receptiveness of Chinese people towards foreign brands. The Chinese received the German cuisines positively which led to increased popularity of German restaurants. Just like the Germans, Chinese prefer dining from outside catering, and western foods served in cafeterias, restaurants, and bars (European Union of SME Centre, 2013). The already established foreign brands often shape foreign firms into delivering high-standard products. International brands are characterized by a diversity of choices and attractive outlook which meaningfully change the market trend. Equally, the Chinese way of life influences the consumers’ behavior towards being loyal to foreign brands. While Chinese based their consumption behavior on product utility and price, the recent changes in consumer preferences and behaviors shifted these preferences towards increased loyalty in foreign brands.

According to Heinzelmann (2008), various factors such as competition, achievement, and success of foreign firms in a new area determine the success of a new firm. However, Heinzelmann (2008) highlights those customers in China value the hospitality and a quality of services offered by the new firms. Therefore, the success of German restaurants bin China underlies on maintaining customer satisfaction at high levels.
Over the recent years, Gao (2015) notes that China has experienced a considerable increase in the number of German restaurants. Also, most Chinese prefer German beer and cuisines. Building on the opinion of local, Gao (2015) Chinese people prefers German food such as sausage, pork knuckle, and mashed potato. In addition, most German restaurants in China incorporate meat-related ingredients which is the preferred taste of the Chinese. The cuisines are flavored with Bavarian flavor, the most favored by customers in China. Concerning the beers and wines, most customers in China go for German beers and wines as number one choice. Due to the unique flavor of German beers, (Zeng & Szolnoki (2014; Life, 2011) describe that most customers go to German bars to solely drink beer.
Although German restaurants have not established in most parts of China, the Chinese favor German bakery products and pastries (Gao (2015). Among the well-known German restaurants in China is the Schindler’s Tankstelle located in Beijing. Lonely Planet publications (2017) describe the restaurant as attractive and one that provides diversified choices to Chinese customers. Schindler’s Tankstelle provides customers with different types of beers and eateries such as sauerkraut and scrambled pancakes. In addition, the restaurant has a historical reputation for delivering a tantalizing flavor of Central European meals. The restaurant also is in close proximity to Ritan Park which offers customers a serene environment for relaxation after their meals.

2.4. consumer behavior in China

Founding a successful German eatery venture in China is a prerequisite for understanding Chinese consumer behavior. Culturally, Chines people spend a great deal of their total income on eating, and presently, eating in China is perceived for entertainment and survival (Xu, 2013). Besides, Chen (n.d.) points out that the Chinese believe that dining in a German restaurant is a way of familiarizing and identifying with the western culture because the restaurants are rooted in the modern service and dining practices. Since German customs emphasize on professional equality of both women, consumers in China visit this restaurant to experience the feel of service provided by mixed gender (Kostelijk, 2016). Based on the report published by International markets, foreign firms adopt the country-specific menu business strategy which aids in their rapid growth in China (International Market Bureau, 2010). Further, the report depicts that, when compared to local restaurants chains, foreign restaurants in China develop at a rate of 10% higher per year. Hill (2007) suggests that the 10% depicts that the German restaurants are highly competitive than the local restaurants.
Consumer behavior is usually influenced by various factors. In China, consumer behavior is influenced by multiple factors, and thus, it is critical for entrepreneurs to consider these factors before investing in China. The factors are age and income related. Product information is crucial in product development as it helps in shaping customers’ attitudes and purchasing power. Thus, when establishing product definition in the market, entrepreneurs should take care of the language and comments used with a given product. Rehder (2013) notes that comments made when advertising or promoting a product influence the customers’’ perception. In context, the language used to advertise a German restaurant shape the consumers’ perception towards the restaurant. It is from the comments that customers are able to compare various restaurants and make their decisions.
Referrals also play a significant role in the consumer’s behavior. Rehder (2013) suggest that customers’ behavior is closely linked to customers’ preferences towards different products. Consumer behavior is also influenced by their familiarity with the product or service rendered. As such, customers depict an upward trajectory with products that they have used and met their needs. For example, research by Spohn shows that the more customers were satisfied by the type of food and services offered in German restaurants, the more likely they went back to the restaurants (Spohn, 2012). Spohn’s research depicts that customers researched, experienced, and ranked the restaurants based on the quality of services offered to make their decisions.

2.5. Customer Satisfaction Theory

Customer satisfaction is critical to the success of any firm. As Heinzelmann demonstrates in his research, consumers’ behavior in China is by far shaped by the quality of services offered by German restaurants (Heinzelmann, 2008). As such, various theories have been adopted to explain the concept of customer satisfaction. Consumer satisfaction is defined by Kan (2003) as the extent to which customers get contented by a given product or service measured through the number of customers returning to access the service or product. Kan’s definition is a consumer-based approach that connotes that for customers to return for more products and services, the products and services must meet the consumers’ needs. Other definitions of customer satisfaction include Anderson’s approach. Anderson (2009) defines customer satisfaction as the extent to which a given service or products meets or exceed the needs of consumers. Meaningfully, Anderson depicts that if the perceived product/service performance is likely to be rejected by the customer, the customer is expected to hand-down the product even when it is very close to the expected standards.
While assessing customer satisfaction with various products, Carlsmith and Aronson suggested the negativity theory approach which underlies the effects of negative attitudes on consumers’ satisfaction (Carlsmith and Aronson, 1963). When a service or a product is below consumers’ expectations, customers tend to develop a negative attitude towards the product/served. As a result, consumers develop negative opinions such that, even when the product is improved to align with their needs, the customers remain rigid to their negative perceptions which are hard to erase. Therefore, to achieve customer satisfaction, the products and services have to be designed to align with the customers’ needs and wants. Accordingly, consumers decide to attend and consume food from a given restaurant when the services meet their expectations. These expectations include accessible, high-quality, enabling and secure environment, and affordable products and services. As Anderson (2009) suggests, consumer satisfaction in German restaurants underlies the ability of the restaurants’ products and services to meet or surpass consumers’ expectations.

2.6. Customer Satisfaction Model

Satisfied customers are one characteristic of a successful restaurant. Thus, restaurant owners must gain a clear understanding of factors leading to customer satisfaction. Research findings by Sabir et al. (2014) and tan et al., (2014) detail the factors that fuel customer satisfaction. The authors agree on the factors as attendants’ responsiveness towards the needs and demands of customers, delivery of quality products, affordable prices enabling environment, and openness of the atmosphere to customers’ needs and want. Detailed explanations of these factors are explained in a consumer satisfaction model in figure 2.1 below.
Figure 2.1. Consumer Satisfaction Model

(Source: Sabir et al., 2014)

2.6.1. Responsiveness

Responsiveness is a critical factor in consumer satisfaction as it determines the consumers’ decisions about a product/ service (Malhotra, 2016). According to a definition by Malhotra (2016), responsiveness refers to delivering products and services promptly. It is an act of responding quickly to consumers’ want and needs. In the hospitality industry, Sabir et al. (2014) point out that responsiveness is the quick delivery of services to customers based on their needs. Responsiveness in the case of a restaurant increases customers trust and loyalty. Conversely, when the attendants are responsive to customers’’ needs, Sabir et al., (2014) argue that they enhance their trustworthiness towards these needs. Enhancing staff responsiveness requires managers to train and guide the staff on receptiveness. The training will enable the staff to develop positive attitudes and behaviors towards customers’ expectations. Responsiveness not only improves service delivery but also enhances customer- staff relationships. Managers also strengthen responsiveness in developing strategies that aid in the timely delivery of services to customers. According to Tan et al. (2014), responsiveness is further heightened when the staff works collaboratively to ensure swift delivery of quality and quick services.
Based on Xu (2013) research, responsiveness also connotes the comprehensive understanding of the dynamism of customers’ needs and wants. Xu believes that a product or service must align with the ever-changing needs and wants of consumers. Customers’ tastes and preferences keep on changing, and thus, the products have to respond to these changes for customers to get satisfied. Given that restaurants are open to diverse people and cultures, the service delivery and cuisines must be offered based on the consumers’ needs to satisfy them fully. As such, Sabir et al. (2012) described that restaurants had adopted various strategies geared towards enhancing responsiveness. The cuisines and service delivery are structured in a way that aligns with the diversified range of consumer’s needs and wants. Rehder (2013) highlights that restaurants have adopted product and service improvisation as a strategy for enhancing responsiveness to consumers’ changing needs and wants. This is especially prevalent in the restaurant which accommodates diverse people. Restaurant attendants have been equipping with the relevant skills and systems for attending to customers. Effective training equips the restaurant personnel with the necessary skills in service delivery and operation management (Sabir et al. 2012).

2.6.2. Product quality

Consumer satisfaction is also determined by product quality. Both product and service quality is essential to the success of any firm. A great emphasis on product quality by customers signifies customer satisfaction. Kan (2003) emphasizes that, although product and service quality is perceived differently, they are both of equal significance in promoting consumer satisfaction. In restaurants, consumers’ satisfaction with product quality is signified by the frequent return of customers and focus on quality products. Huge reliance on quality by customers assures the restaurants of organizational and services loyalty Sabir et al. (2014). Further, Tan et al. (2014) noted that the more customers get satisfied with the products and services offered by restaurants the higher the probability of these consumers consuming from these restaurants. In restaurants, consumers under on the quality factors such as flavor, freshness, diversity of choices, and food temperature to determine their satisfaction with the cuisines offered (Tan et al. (2014).

2.6.3. Price

Price as it regards consumer satisfaction refers to the total cost of services and products rendered to customers. Research by Emerald Group Publishing Limited shows that price influences consumers purchasing behavior and satisfaction (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015). Price is tied to consumer satisfaction through reasonable prices. As Gotlieb, Grewal & Brown (1994) argues, Customers are more satisfied when they are charged reasonable prices for service and products. As such, customer’s expectation should align with the product/ service prices if consumer satisfaction is to be achieved. When products are charged beyond the consumers’ affordability level, they are likely to leave thee consumers dissatisfied. Therefore, Emerald Group Publishing Limited (2015) suggests that price should be reasonable and affordable to consumers. For instance, customers believe that when product prices are high, the product is of premium quality. Conversely, when the prices are low, the product is perceived to be substandard. In context, before purchasing foods served in restaurants, Sabir et al. (2014) argue that customers have a keen look at the menu and related restaurant features to make their consumption decisions. However, although the product or service quality is a determiner in consumer satisfaction, Tan et al. (2014) suggest that price should go hand in hand with product/ service quality for maximum consumer satisfaction.

2.6.4. Environment

Environment refers to the physical and interior factors affecting consumer satisfaction. According to Sabir et al., (2014), the internal and physical factors of the consumers surrounding facilitate the effective delivery if restaurant services. Enabling environments and proper physical design of restaurants grant the customers the comfort they need to feel satisfied. In addition, adequate and good-looking infrastructure helps the restaurant staff to deliver service promptly without compromising customers’ needs. Staff members create a supportive environment by ensuring the availability of dining utensils and related cooking materials. Customers create an enabling environment by properly arranging the seats, dishes, spoons and proper lighting in all dining rooms. As Tan et al. (2014) suggest, the physical and interior designs entail the tangible features of a restaurant. Therefore, to enhance customer satisfaction, the tangible outlook should be appealing to enhance consumers’ comfort in accessing restaurants’’ services. Customers should be able to move freely within the restaurants’ surroundings. The menu should also be compelling and attractive to persuade customers in requesting for the services they are comfortable with. Tan et al. (2014) further argued that cleanliness is also a crucial factor in consumer satisfaction. As such the staff appearance, the tableware, kitchenware, and other relevant areas of the restaurant should be clean to the extent of making customers’ needs satisfied.

2.6.5. Atmosphere

Kotler & Gertner (2002) defined atmosphere as the feelings, emotions, and the mood of the restaurants. The atmosphere is created by various factors such as a feeling of security, touch, sound, scent, and room temperature. Atmosphere influences consumers’ behavior and customer satisfaction with the restaurants’ services. According to Mhlanga et al. (2014), the proper atmosphere and ambiance are critical for firms to remain competitive. Proper ambiance gives customers a good dining experience and after that consumer satisfaction. For instance, the background music played in restaurants should be specifically played according to the needs of target consumers. For instance, slow and soothing wedding songs are good for couples wanting to marry. Consumers should also be provided with good lighting to help them see each speckle in their food. Other factors to be considered include the smell and noise. According to Hill et al. (2007), a good smelling and silent place makes consumers satisfied.

2.7. Summary

The chapter has detailed a comprehensive overview of German restaurants and cuisines. Also, the section has focused on German restaurants in China and Chinese consumer behavior as it regards German restaurants. Lastly, the chapter has detailed the five factors of consumer satisfaction model as contained in the satisfaction theory. The next section, chapter three will focus on the methodology and design used in studying German restaurants and cuisines.

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1. Introduction

The chapter describes the methodology of the research. It includes the procedures that the research applied to investigate customer satisfaction factors in the German restaurant. The study is a qualitative assessment using the consumer satisfaction model identified in Chapter Two. The areas of focus in this chapter include research design, the research method, sample selection, data collection, data analysis, data validity, ethical considerations and limitations of the research study. Essentially, a thorough search in literature observes no study of this type had been conducted before.

3.2. Research Design

Research design establishes the quest for obtaining meaning findings for the topic under investigation. Research methodology outlines the strategy that will be used when conducting the research. It is the mechanics by which factors associated with studying the topic are applied to give a better understanding of the topic under consideration. Further, research methodology generates a theoretical conception, which is an essential guide during the study (Hancock et al., 1998).
The study at hand adopts a qualitative approach. The qualitative research design is based on data collection methods that may include a questionnaire, interviews, observation and or secondary data (Creswell, 1998). Qualitative research can use a small sample size for data collection. Moreover, qualitative research is beneficial for analyzing an individual’s perceptions, experiences, expectations, and opinions about the German restaurants (Patton & Cochran, 2002). In this research a qualitative approach is applied to study factors that contribute to customer satisfaction in a German restaurant in Macau. As such this research will be exploratory, and qualitative research is appropriate for exploratory-based research (Hancock et al., 1998). Also, concepts from the customer satisfaction model identified in Chapter 2 are used to guide the study into the research question. Additionally, guide the design of the questions for data collection, and also to code the data during the data analysis.

3.3 Sampling procedure and sample size

According Creswell (1998) samples in qualitative research should be large enough to generate feedback to all the preconceived conceptions. Moreover, Glaser and Straus (1964) emphasize that sample saturation promotes the use of a sample that is effective. Based on the condition of saturation, interviewees were taken until the results obtained from respondents appeared not to be changing. Essentially, this refers to effectivity, which depends on how a small number of interviewees become relevant compared to a large number of interviewees who might not add any further value to the findings. According to Patton (1990), the sample size in a qualitative study also depends on time available for the research, the specific objectives of the study, as well as the possible resources available.
The researcher chose a sample based on two criteria, which were classified as first hand and second experiences. The first-hand experience refers to people with direct experience dining in a German restaurant. The second-hand experience includes people whose perceptions of a German restaurant have been influenced by people that have had first-hand experience dining in a German restaurant. In this research, identifying Macau residents with first-hand experience in dining in a German restaurant proved to be challenging. Indeed, there have been few German restaurants that have proved to be successful in Macau. For this reason, it was decided to include respondents that possessed both first-hand experiences and respondents that possessed second hand experiences in the study. The approach proved useful in identify perceptions, and opinions about German restaurants for the purpose of studying the research question and meeting the objectives of the study.

3.4 Questionnaire Design

The researcher developed the study questions in line with the key issues that influence customer satisfaction in a restaurant. The interview questionnaire was divided into six sections (see Appendix A for a copy of the Questionnaire). The first section has general questions about first-time experiences in a German restaurant. This part was developed to gauge perceptions about the general level of satisfaction of the respondents. The next five sections include questions based on concepts within the customer satisfaction model, introduced in Chapter Two. The second section therefore identifies issues associated with responsiveness, a component in the consumer satisfaction model. Essential elements in this section include establishing the perceptions of staff communications with customers during service requests and the responsiveness of the staff towards meeting customer expectations. The third section focuses on product quality to identify factors that are important in attaining quality of food, as well as determines the performance of specific menu characteristics such as décor, presentation and their interconnections with food quality. The fourth section covers the concept of price which is included in the consumer satisfaction model. The section captures questions about price characteristics of the German food in the restaurant to explore their relationships to customer satisfaction. The fifth section is designed to explore the physical environment issues such as the influence of the surroundings and settings on customer experiences and customer satisfaction are evaluated. The sixth section focuses on the impact of the restaurant’s atmosphere on customer satisfaction in a German restaurant.

3.5 Data Collection Strategy

The research is a qualitative study. Consequently, both secondary and primary sources of information are used in the investigation. As already explored, the literature review section has established the existing relationships with the present topic. The information is obtained from credible academic sources which excurse the topic in depth. The sources for the literature review are obtained from articles published in reputable journals, books as well as online publications. The data obtained shall be used to analyze the context of German cuisine in Macau. Further, the findings shall be used to draw conclusions about the topic.
Primary data is collected from the respondents who are selected randomly. The random selection help limit bias in the investigation process. The questions were open ended which were deemed appropriate for the study. According to Hancock et al. (1998), argue that open ended questions enables the respondents to independently present their understanding of the matter. Moreover, the respondents are able to give adequate information about the topic. The overall result is the realization of the study objectives. . The respondents each had 45 minutes to respond to the interview schedule. There are 26 questions asked to each of the interviewees. The interview was conducted in Macau among the respondents who had received a formal invitation. Each interviewee was allocated 30 minutes to respond to all the questionnaire.

3.6. Data Analysis

Both the primary and secondary sources provide a viable data of information for the study. Qualitative analysis is used in the investigation. The data from the interview schedules are illustrated and explained with a reasonable understanding of each set outcome. Conclusions are drawn based on findings of the analysis. Accordingly, as suggested by researchers interview responses are cross-validated with the secondary data (Hancock et al., 1998; Creswell, 1998; Ersanilli et al., 2011). The primary data collected from the interviews are coded, with similarities, and differing opinions noted. The data are analyzed and subsequently compared for themes with relevance to customer responsiveness, price characteristics, environmental factors and atmospheric aspects of the restaurant.

3.7. The validity and reliability of the data

Quality in research is a critical principle in determining the authority of findings of the research investigation. The commonly used parameters are validity and reliability test are the parameters commonly used. Bryam et al. (2015) described the importance of validity and reliability tests in a research study. The two types of validity; internal and external validity tests are used in the study. External validity is the degree by which the analysis is generalized to the other related context. Internal validity is used to verify the consistency between research questions and the findings through the application of codes based on the concepts included in the customer satisfaction model (Saunders et al., 2009). However, O’Gorman and MacIntoch (2015) highlighted that reliability is an ability to repeat the research by a different investigator and realize the same findings. Moreover, Mohsen & Dennick, (2011) described that a data collection instrument could be valid only if its reliability can easily be determined. Validity and reliability will be ascertained by reading through the response sheet to establish if all questions were answered. The researcher and the assistant will confirm if respondents were prejudiced during interviews to give unrealistic information.

3.8. Ethical Considerations

Ethics is a requirement for conducting research. Saunders et al. (2009) highlight the relevance of considering ethics in research studies. Ethical considerations establish the principles and moral values that the researcher must abide by while conducting the study (Collis and Hussey, 2014). The academic institution sponsoring the research study provides an authority through its ethical issues in research, which governs the research process. The researcher defines other ethical issues for the research. For this study, it is critical that children and disabled people are not considered in data collection.
The researcher has observed the following ethical issues during the study.

Ethical issue Restraint measure
Nature of involvement By randomly picking respondents for the study, only those willing were accepted into the study
Privacy The interviewer takes caution not to asks questions which may expose the privacy of respondents
Damage to respondents Exceptional caution to limit any form of injury or damage caused to respondents.
Anonymity Entities and respondents which takes part in the study are kept anonymous
Honesty Sharing of information between the respondent and researcher is encouraged o promoted trust and utmost good faith.
Objectivity The interview schedules are objective and only concentrates on the matter at hand.

3.9 Summary Remarks

The primary purpose of this qualitative research sets out to understand factors that contribute customer satisfaction in the German restaurant. On such a basis. The study has sought the attention of respondents with first hand and second-hand customer experiences of dining at German restaurants concepts within the customer satisfaction model have been applied to guide data collection and data analysis. In particular, in this chapter we have presented the research design, sampling procedure and selection of participants, methods of data collection and data analysis, data validation procedures and the application of ethical issues in the study. Analysis of the Data and findings are presented in chapter four which follows next.

CHAPTER FOUR: FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

4.1. Introduction

The research adopts a qualitative approach to answer the problems. The sample size was a total of nine participants who shared their valuable experience about dining in a German restaurant through an interview schedule. The questionnaire comprises of 26 questions and the feedback gained from the investigation are presented and subsequently analyzed. The chapter begins with the presentation of the findings.

4.2. Analysis of the data

The data analysis which is conducted across the 6 sections of the questionnaire is now presented. First the findings of the questions in the general information part of the questionnaire. This is followed by the analysis of each of the five concepts outlined in the customer satisfaction model which include responsiveness, price, product quality, environment, and atmosphere.
Additionally, while all the interviewees were exposed to all the questions, some abstained from responding to some questions. However, the success rate in answering rate was 95%.
The table below summarizes the information obtained from the interview schedules conducted on nine respondents.

Table 4.1 Description of respondents

4.2.1 General information

Gender Age No. Respondents First-hand experience Second hand experience
Female 23-30 6 4 2
Male 31-41 3 2 1

The questions asked in the general information aimed to assess how customers choose restaurants, how they discover the location of the restaurant as well as methods used in giving feedback on the services provided in the restaurant.

Table 4.2: General information

Theme Response
Choice of a restaurant Food quality, good services; ambiance of the restaurant
Price and customer reviews; locality and cuisine
Discover restaurant Social media & comments from friends; adverts & word of mouth
Near home; experimentation, websites & magazines
Giving feedback ‘social media; communicate with friends; talk directly to staff;
Share on FB, exchange experience with friends.

About choice, most of the respondents expressed that food quality, prices, services available and the environmental condition are key in deciding what restaurant they will eat from. For instance, one respondent expressed that “taste, price, service and environment” was all they wanted to assess in choosing a restaurant. The respondents noted that social media adverts and posts from friends, magazines, and websites, and the need to experiment with the nearby restaurant intensively influenced them towards discovering new restaurants in their locality. “Facebook, website, magazine, friends sharing” are principal informers about restaurants. Most respondents expressed their love for giving feedback about the services and the operation of the new restaurant. While social media, chat with friends, FB comments, some still preferred directly reporting their encounter with the restaurant staff.
In summary, the general information revealed that social media, friends, and environmental condition determined the frequency of customers into the restaurant.

4.2.2 Responsiveness

The section sought information about what customers expect in a restaurant, the most important behavior for staff, and description of the staff behavior.

Table 4.3: Summary of responsiveness

Theme Response
Expectations Greetings on arrival; good customer service;
Nice and polite welcome;
Important behavior
of staff
Polite; Nice and friendly; polite, professional and welcoming
Politeness and service oriented; familiarity with the restaurant.
Behavior at a German restaurant Friendly, responsive & professional; passionate and informed about dishes;

Most respondents agreed what they expect at a restaurant upon arrival. Indeed, most of them expressed they wanted to be greeted on arrival, wanted good customer service. One respondent noted that “Staff will automatically come to greet you with a pleasant smile.”
The respondents expressed that the most important behavior that the staff should demonstrate are politeness, friendliness, professional outlook. Moreover, one study respondent observed that the staff “should be familiar with the restaurant, they need understand the menu, while a guest may confuse the menu, they can explain clearly. Also, customer service skill is very important. If the staff works on a bad attitude, guest will not come again.” About the specific behavioral characteristics that the respondents expressed should be pertinent to the staff at a German restaurant include; friendly, responsive, passionate, and informed. Significantly, respondent observed that “prefer waiter wearing the traditional uniform and simple German, and also traditional things about Germany.”
In summary, concerning the responsiveness of customers in German restaurants in Macau, the analysis identified that the staff should be polite, nice and friendly, professionally adorned according to the German restaurant staff. Further, they should be receptive and open to welcome customers, while at the same time maintaining an adequate understanding of the menu of the restaurant.

4.2.3 Food quality

The section of the questionnaire sought to identify characteristics of a menu, food presentation styles, assessing the quality of food as well as sharing experience with the German restaurant in Macau.

Table 4.4: The findings are summarized of food quality

Theme Response
The expectation of German menu Beer & sausage; variety with quality alcoholic beverages;
Similar to those displayed in October festival; focus on quality
Description of food details.
Food presentation style Family casual style; German home-make style
More casual; sample presentation with limited decoration,
Rating food quality Should be tasty; simple & tasty; fresh;
Good depending on satisfaction, four out of five
Experience at German Restaurant in Macau October feast, knuckle & sausage; limited to eat, limited menu
food not good and served in little quantities;

Majority of the respondents reported that German Restaurants in Macau mainly sell alcoholic beverages of high quality. Further, details of food were important aspects that customers expect to see contained in the menu. Essentially, a few respondents noted the aspects associated with October feast as what should be part of the menu. For instance, respondent 3 reported that “Influenced by the October festival held by the restaurants in Macau, similar menu items, and more selections are expected.” The response indicates that people visit German restaurants mainly during October feast where they have fun drinking and bashing. While most respondents abstained from giving a response to the question about food presentation styles, the majority of the few respondents observed that German home-make style was preferable. Moreover, respondent 6 noted that, “German home-make style, like stewing, rolling and roasting, etc., common dishes include salads, stewed vegetables and barbecue with rolled potato.
The majority of the respondents reported the quality of food in the restaurant as tasty, fresh, and of high quality. However, a few respondents noted that “If the food makes me feel that I can find better and cheaper then I rate it bad, good food should give you the feeling that you cannot copy at home or find anywhere else.” The response was contingent on the quality standards at the restaurant which will attract and retain customers. Most of the respondents reported their experience in the German restaurant as one constituting enjoying the knuckle & sausage; limited to eat, limited menu, food not good and served in little quantities. The responses were mixed with a few respondents abstaining from answering the question. Respondent 1 reported that “regardless the German restaurant, all food standards, decoration, service attitude, atmosphere satisfy customer needs in Macau.”
In summary, concerning the quality of products offered in the German restaurants in Macau, the analysis revealed that customers expect these restaurants to trade in beers and sausages, with complementing dishes as displayed during October festival. Further, the restaurants should tell us the German style in presentation their products. The respondents report about quality at the German restaurant was averagely good with most challenging the restaurant to expand their menu to include a variety of dishes. Quality as an aspect of service delivery depends on the satisfaction of wants which the restaurant has continuously promoted through the promotion of festivals where they display and serve their dishes.

4.2.4 Price of products

the section of the interview schedule sought to understand how price influence choice of restaurant, personal expenditure levels, service and price relationships as well as rates of charges in the German restaurants in Macau.

Table 4.5 findings on the price of products

Theme Response
Price and choice of restaurant Price important; reasonable price attracts
Never returns when the price is too high;
Never go when the price is too high
Expenditure levels per person per meal (Food: Alcohol) 60%:40%; 50%:50%; 40%:60%
Expenditure on food higher than alcohol.
Price charge for a meal MOP 350; MOP 250; MOP 200,
MOP 400; MOP 500
Price & service costs Will spend when viable service;
will not spend when unsatisfied

Majority of the respondents (represented by both first time and second experience) agreed that price was a key determinant when choosing a restaurant in Macau. While a few noted that ‘price not important,’ majority observed that will ‘never return when the price is too high.’ Therefore, customers’ choice of the restaurant depends on price. Moreover, acceptance of the German restaurant in Macau entirely depends on charging effective prices.
While many agreed that the menu of a German restaurant is dominated by alcoholic drinks and foods such as bread, the level of expenditure is high and is distributed in the ration of 3:2. Depending on the time one visits the restaurant, the level of consumption of food to alcohol is in most occasions high. Further, the results revealed the interchangeability of the ratios. For instance, one respondent noted that “Dinner Time: food 70% and Wine 30%, Focus on food and gathering with friends Tea Time/ Late night Food 40% and Wine 60% or more than.”
About the relationship between prevailing prices of the meals, respondents reported a service charge in the range of MOP 200 to 350. The majority expressed that the prices are fair to the prevailing market conditions. For example, one described the price charge as “$200 – $350. Quite pricey for the German restaurant in Macau. But it is understandable, as it is located at Macau Tower, the operation cost would be higher than normal restaurants.” Others maintained that “$300 – $400, from the perception of dining at a European restaurant, I would expect to be spending a sumptuous amount of money for my meal.” The two responses, despite reporting different price levels agree that a German restaurant is worth the prices it charges for its services. While other respondents abstained from answering the question on price and the level of service costs, others maintained that would not spend in the German restaurants who charge high service costs, and especially when the services are not commensurate with the service offered.
In summary, the price charged for the meals and drinks determines the level of the customer base in a German restaurant in Macau. Higher prices discourage customer, especially when these products do not meet the quality standards in a German restaurant. Further, on average, the prevailing prices in a German restaurant in Macau was found to be commensurate with the economic conditions prevailing in Macau. Customers in Macau are responsive to prices of services. Price determines the spending behavior of customers.

4.2.5 Environment

The critical themes explored by this section of the questionnaire were the influence of physical environment on personal experience, the restaurant design, preparation of the dining table, and the implication of ambiance on customer experience. The section also examined the overall appearance of the German restaurant in Macau and how it impacts on customer experience.

Table 4.6: findings of the environment

Themes Response
Physical environment & experience Feel comfortable and may order more
Enjoyable; German style decoration is attractive
I expect good food at a hygienic restaurant
Interior design & dining experience Affect mood at dinner; design matches the cuisine
Good lighting and music relaxes
Type of friends and occasion
Table style/layout & experience Influence expectation of waitress behavior
Attracts me into the restaurant
The spacious dining room is good;Big space and a big table
The wide layout makes customers happy
Ambiance and dining experience Stay longer of ambiance is nice
Good ambiance enhances the eating experience
Music is important for ambiance; Affects me by 80%
Experience in a German restaurant Good, feel better and will return
Good food, don’t like alcohol
Love the creativity and the live band

Most of the respondents expressed that the physical environment greatly impacted on their experience eating in a German restaurant in Macau. Notable environmental aspects of the restaurant were the style of decoration, hygienic standards, comfortability and the cooperation of the staff with the customers. One respondent reported that “It affects me greatly. The environment correlates with the expectation of the meals which will be served. If I dine at a high-end restaurant, I would expect the ambiance to be luxurious and hygienic and vice-versa.” Still, another expressed that “A good restaurant should have comfort and clean environment suitable light and music.” Essentially, the respondents expressed their experience to be bolstered by an improved environmental condition of the restaurant.
Respondents connected the interior design of restaurant to the dining experience. Majority of the respondents observed that interior design influences their mood and appetite for the cuisine to be served. Proper lighting and music were ingredients of relaxation. However, the desire to improve the experience by listening to music was a subject dependent on the type of friend one has. Some of the sampled responses include:
Respondent 4: It is comfortless of the restaurant, the design should match the type of cuisine you are having in the restaurant
Respondent 6: If I was going to a dining room it should feel luxury and comfortable! If not, I won’t feel satisfied no matter the food is wonderful. There means the interior design such match the style of the restaurant.
The respondents were positive that internal design of the restaurant had a strong impact on their dining experience.
Another factor considered during the interviews was about the influence of table layout and customer satisfaction. Majority of the respondents were positive about the layout of the table as a key bolster to the experience in the restaurants. Significant themes identified were the high potential of the table style to contribute to attraction and retention of the customers. Moreover, a large dining space with a wide layout greatly impacted on customer satisfaction at the restaurant.
Some of the sampled response was; if the table is too small, you may not be able to order more food, or you may have to finish the dish as fast as you can if you have ordered a few dishes and will not be able to enjoy the food comfortably.
The ambiance in the restaurant improved customer experience in the restaurant. Majority of the respondents noted that the greater the ambiance in the restaurant, the longer they stayed in the restaurant, they had a greater eating experience. Majority of the respondents also expressed their desire to have the music played in the restaurant as a way to enhance their experience. Other respondents reported bad ambiance is discouraging and will often send them off. One respondent noted that “Around 80% affects me, if the ambiance is not good, I think I will leave.”
Majority of the respondents described the environment of a German restaurant in Macau as good, enhanced with creative designs attractive for relaxation and dining. Some of the respondents noted that “The overall appearance of the German restaurant is quite good by locating at Macau Tower, a very nice location for chilling out after a long day of work. It would be even better if the restaurant is bigger.’
In summary, the environment of the restaurant should be conducive enough to attract new customers as well retain the old ones. The interior design, arrangement of the dining table, and the ambiance of a restaurant are influential characteristics that ensue, customers, maximum satisfaction. The environment of a German restaurant in Macau is good, attractive and has imperatively influenced the preference for their meals as indicated by the responses.

4.2.6 Atmosphere

The section comprised six questions that sought to establish information about how the atmospheric factors/condition of the restaurant contribute to customer satisfaction. Some of the pertinent aspects of the atmosphere under scrutiny include the aspects of entertainment like sound, the temperature in the restaurant and how they influence the customer experience.

Table 4.6: findings of the atmosphere

Theme Response
The atmosphere and customer experience Good atmosphere is attractive;
Good decoration and staff attitude is good
Affects mood to dine
Focus on atmospheric aspects in German Restaurant Sound; Design
Scent, sound, touch, sight, room temperature
Entertainment Not necessary; need dependent on the period
Important in arousing moods.
Not important than a focus on food
Most appealing in Restaurant in Macau Customer service; Food and atmosphere,
Pork Knuckle and German Beer, the price is reasonable
Pay attention
Least appealing in a restaurant in Macau Noise; high price and a small quantity
Inconvenient location in Macau tower
Limited restaurants to choose from
What to improve customer satisfaction in a German restaurant Ensuring quality of food, hygiene, Good services
Staff training on German culture on food
Too much function and entertainment
Advertisement and promotions

While most of the respondents abstained from the question on essential aspects of the atmosphere that would be suitable in a German restaurant in Macau, the few who answered the question were optimistic that good atmospheric conditions in the restaurant directly impacted on their level of satisfaction. Important aspects of customer experience such as mood, attitude, and attractiveness are enhanced through promoting a conducive atmosphere in the restaurant. For example, some notable explains leveled by respondents include, “staff service, sound and interior design of the restaurant are attractive,” and “sight with the special promotion. Prefer to have background music when having dinner, warm-light. Should not be too cold with room-temperature.” Customers feel happy when they eat from the restaurant that has improved atmospheric condition.
About the most appealing aspect of the German restaurant at Macau, the majority of the respondents expressed their content with customer service, food and the atmospheric conduciveness of the restaurant. Moreover, the food which comprises of knuckle pork, and meat were edifying. Most of the customers were happy while they maintained that the good services were an important aspect of the restaurant that would promote their loyalty to the restaurant. For instance, some notable responses include; “customer service, more pay attention to the customer,” and “Pork Knuckle and German Beer, the price is reasonable.” The respondents maintained that while the restaurant could be expensive in the manner, it charges its prices, it is important that restaurant paid attention to their customers, provided a conducive atmosphere that promoted mood, attitude and desire to eat in the restaurant.
Majority of the respondents, however, were appalled with some aspects of atmosphere that formed part of the restaurant. Such aspects as noise, price and quantity relationships, inconvenient location. Most of the respondents noted that noise was destructive, the German restaurant charged high prices for their foods. Essentially, the limited number of German restaurants in Macau impaired their choice and autonomy in decision making about which restaurant to attend. For example, one respondent observed that “Too noisy with a live band. Additionally, a few respondents expressed their distaste for the services provided in the German restaurant in Macau, while maintaining that the German restaurant is located away from people which makes it harder to go without cars.
On the question about whether entertainment was necessary for the German restaurant in Macau, the majority of the respondents observed it was least in their priority but recommended that the shift should be on food. For instance, one respondent noted that “Entertainment isn’t necessary, but I would welcome it if it’s provided in the restaurant.” A few respondents noted that entertainment was significant in arousing mood, attitude towards the foods and drinks offered in the restaurant. Additionally, the circumstance was key in establishing the viability of entertainment during any in the restaurant. One respondent observed that “Depend on period…Most family/ friends gathering time, they will prefer to relax music at dinner time. Others would like to have some entertainment.”
The respondents noted the following recommendations on improving customer satisfaction in Macau.
Respondent 1: “Staff training and understand German food culture, not only for pork knuckle and bears.”
Respondent 2: “Hold more functions and celebrations, event and entertainment.”
Respondent 3: “Improving services.”
Respondent 4: “Comparing the price and portion, the German restaurant in Macau is quite pricey comparing to other restaurants in Macau.”
Respondent 5: “I believe that the most crucial aspect of maintaining customer satisfaction are the quality of food, hygienic and comfortable ambiance, and staffs’ professionalism.”
In summary, atmosphere as an aspect of customer satisfaction model is revered in different ways. While majority maintain that entertainment, internal design, sight, sound, and the entire atmosphere at the German restaurant is appealing and attractive, a few observed that need for these aspects entirely depend on occasion and type of friends a customer has in the restaurant. Essentially, this qualifies, the atmosphere as attractive without those additional aspects.
Moreover, most of the respondents in the study expressed common understanding about improving customer satisfaction in a German restaurant. The respondents noted that improving quality, customer service, food variety, bolster staff training to ensure that the indigenous German restaurant offers services. That way, the restaurant will maintain the uniqueness in taste and atmosphere in a standard German restaurant located anywhere.

4.3 Chapter summary

The chapter has provided sufficient information about the data and findings of the study. In the chapter, the five components of the customer satisfaction model have been evaluated according to the German restaurant located at Macau.
The subsequent chapter will present a discussion of these findings, identify limitations, and define implications for the study. Further, it will provide issues that were beyond the scope of the present study.

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction

The research study aimed to understand the question: how can a German restaurant be adopted in Macau? To answer the question effectively, some research objectives were designed. The first objective was to analyze the level of customer satisfaction in a German restaurant in Macau and eventually suggest alternatives to support adoption of such a restaurant in Macau. An intensive study was pursued to meet these objectives using the customer satisfaction framework.

5.2 Discussion of findings

The analysis of the research findings has provided a detailed understanding of the customer satisfaction. Zeng and Szolnoki (2014) argues that German cuisine are popular with people across diverse cultures. Some of the foods popular with the Germans include potatoes, plum tart, pasts, rice, seeds and nuts. Additionally, the German’s menu encompasses chicken, pork, sausage, and beef. The Germans rarely consume delicious meals because they have a few celebrations in any typical year. Rehder (2013) and Heinzelmann (2008) maintains that are popular with taking coffee and cakes in the afternoon, mostly in the restaurants. Moreover, wines and other alcoholic drinks were found to be part of the menu in a German restaurant. As described by (Nolen & Nolen, 2015).
Responsiveness is a crucial factor in the hospitality industry. The study results revealed how it intensely influenced customer satisfaction level. Sabir et al. (2014) observed that responsiveness among staff is key to improving trustworthiness, the perception of customers. The results reported that specific aspects critical to the promoting customer satisfaction were maintaining politeness, friendliness, ensuring professionalism in responding to customer needs. Further, they should be receptive and open to welcome customers, while at the same time maintaining an adequate understanding of the menu of the restaurant. Malhotra (2016) Tan et al. (2014). As observed, customers in the German restaurant require a service friendly personnel who will meet their needs, which according to Xu (2013) is part of customer satisfaction model.
Kan (2003), Sabir et al. (2014) and Tan et al. (2014) demonstrated that quality of products is crucial in fostering customer satisfaction level. The study revealed that quality was determined by the taste of food, types of the foods and beers offered, and presentation style. Customer satisfaction in the German restaurant depends on the organization of such aspects which according to the findings play a role in bolstering mood, attitude and the likelihood to return to the restaurant. With the main foods identified as beers and sausages, with other complementing dishes as displayed during October festival. Further, the restaurants should tell us the German style in presentation their products. The respondents report about quality at the German restaurant was averagely good with most challenging the restaurant to expand their menu to include a variety of dishes. Quality as an aspect of service delivery depends on the satisfaction of wants which the restaurant has continuously promoted through the promotion of festivals where they display and serve their dishes. Freshness and service style, according to Tan et al. (2014) describes how the restaurant is prepared to handle their customers.
The study also found that the customers consider service, staff behavior and environment as key determinants of their visits to any restaurant. Furthermore, food quality, taste, hygiene, politeness and staff friendliness are essential elements in making decisions about eating in a given restaurant. Customer expect the staff to have adequate knowledge about the menu and where possible should provide recommendations about the meals the restaurants serve.
The price charged for the meals and drinks determines the level of the customer base in a German restaurant in Macau. Higher prices discourage customer, especially when these products do not meet the quality standards in a German restaurant. Further, on average, the prevailing prices in a German restaurant in Macau was found to be commensurate with the economic conditions prevailing in Macau. Customers in Macau are responsive to prices of services. Price determines the spending behavior of customers (Gotlieb, Grewal & Brown, 1994. The Chinese customers enjoy eating from different restaurants. The study revealed that China is a key importer of consumer goods in the world, which was attributed to the fondness with which the Chinese view food as entertainment.
The environment of the restaurant should be conducive enough to attract new customers as well retain the old ones. The interior design, arrangement of the dining table, and the ambiance of a restaurant are important characteristics that ensure customers maximum satisfaction. The environment of a German restaurant in Macau is pleasant, attractive and has imperatively influenced the preference for their meals as indicated by the responses. The findings vindicate the earlier studies by Sabir et al. (2014) and the reports by the Emerald Publishing Limited (2015). The atmosphere of the restaurants impacts directly on customer satisfaction. Good atmosphere attracts customers, and usually promote frequent eatery in the restaurants. Consequently, the restaurant should provide innovative facilities and satisfying atmospheric conditions in the restaurant. Complementing the environment condition were the sound, design and sight which greatly determine frequency into the German serve restaurants. However, the results reported that German culture is low in Macau because most of the customers were Chinese. The atmosphere as an aspect of customer satisfaction model is revered in different ways. While majority maintain that entertainment, internal design, sight, sound, and the entire atmosphere at the German restaurant is appealing and attractive, a few observed that need for these aspects entirely depend on occasion and type of friends a customer has in the restaurant. Essentially, this qualifies, the atmosphere as attractive without those additional aspects.

5.3 Implications of the findings

The critical aspects of customer satisfaction as price, quality, environment, atmosphere, and responsiveness are key issues that have a strong implication for the adoption of a German restaurant in Macau. Subject to the dynamic characteristics of consumers in Macau, who have a high affinity for quality, price, and environment, the management of any German restaurant in Macau must consider these issues while setting operations.
Essentially, some of the approach to bolster customer satisfaction in a bid to ensure continuous customer flow into the restaurant, the management should contemplate dividing the flow area according to the various needs of the customers. For instance, dividing the floor according to preferences for entertainment. The approach ensures that customers only sit on tables that suit their preference for sound. Essentially, the management of the German restaurant should aim at improving quality, customer service, and food variety. Some of these aspects depend on ensuring the staff are trained adequately and can provide services according to the indigenous culture in a German restaurant. That way, the restaurant will maintain its customers because they will feel adequately served.

5.4 Contribution to research

The research findings have contributed to the understanding of specific factors that entrepreneurs trying to establish a German restaurant in Macau must take into consideration. Improved quality, charging prices that are commensurate with the services, maintaining high standards of hygiene are but the key considerations that study introduces into existing literature. Further, the study aims to influence decision making in the hospitality industry in Macau for any future projections.

5.5 Limitations of the research

The study establishes information about the German restaurants, cuisines and the observations of customers about the services provided. An in-depth analysis is undertaken through the literature review to determine determinants of customer decisions regarding the cuisines and the services available. Critical to note is the limited number of participants involved in the study which could limit the authenticity of information gathered therein. As such, making a general conclusion about the information may be insufficient. Nonetheless, the available resources enabled collection of data from the nine respondents accordingly. Additionally, it would be necessary to conduct further research where a large sample is used. The questions were all open ended which meant respondents were at liberty to present their understanding about the topic. The nature of the questions made analysis a bit challenging as everyone had given their own responses to each question. Significantly, the nature of the questions made it possible to only select on the small sample of nine respondents so that data collection and analysis could be easier and faster. The approach had a direct implication on the effectiveness and validity of the outcomes of the research. Given the weakness of this approach, adopting both the open and closed ended questions could promotes quality of the results since it eliminates common errors in answering the questions as well as increasing the number of participants in the study.

5.6. Conclusion

To this end, the study has explored the various factors that influence customer satisfaction in a German restaurant. Since it is the factors that favor the progress of hospitality industry in Macau, management of German restaurants in Macau. In this chapter the discussion of the findings, implication of the study, limitations and suggestions for further research have been discussed.

Appendix 1: Interview Questionnaire

The questionnaire was designed to learn more about the use of German restaurants in Macau. A study how German Restaurant adoption in Macau. The study will know more about Macau people sought to establish the facilitating factors that are likely to improve adoption of the German restaurant in Macau. The questionnaire is divided into five sections corresponding with each of the aspects of customer satisfaction model, such as responsiveness, product quality, price, environment, atmosphere. The questionnaire was delivered during an interview and all personal information will be kept confidential.
Respondent Details:
Age: _______ Gender: _______ Education: _______
Introduction
1. Name the factors that determine the restaurant you take your dinner?
2. How did you know about the new restaurant?
3. What feedback methods to you use to describe your experience?
a) Responsiveness
4. What is your expectation upon arriving in a restaurant?
5. What do you think is important for the behavior of the staff in the restaurant?
6. How would you describe the behavior of a good staff in a German restaurant?
b) Quality of the product
7. What is the menu of a German restaurant in Macau?
8. Name the style of presenting food in a German restaurant
9. Rate the quality of cuisine in the German restaurant?
10. Describe your experience of quality standards at the German restaurant
c) Price of products
11. Describe how the price determine your choice of a restaurant?
12. Describe how price promotion offer affect your choice of a restaurant?
13. Describe your expenditure level on food and alcohol in a German restaurant?
14. Explain the relationship between service charge and price paid in a German restaurant
15. What is your charge for the money in the Restaurant
d) Operating environment
16. What is the influence of physical environment on eating experience in a restaurant?
17. How does the interior design affect your dining experience?
18. How does the table style and layout influence dining experience?
19. Describe the impact of restaurant ambience on your experience?
20. Describe you experience dining in a German restaurant.
e) Atmosphere
21. Explain how atmosphere of the restaurant influence the experience of customer?
22. What are the most important in a restaurant given scent, sight, touch, temperature and sound?
23. What is your perception of entertainment in the restaurant in Macau?
24. What did you like most about going to the German restaurant in Macau?
25. What did you like least about going to the German restaurant in Macau?
26. If a new German restaurant, what should it do to increase customer satisfaction?

Appendix 2問卷調查

問卷調查的目的是了解德國餐廳引入澳門市場的可行性。該研究項目主要是調查澳門市民對德國餐廳各方面的要求和改進,及如何採用於澳門市場。在問卷調查中,澳門市民的意見將被收集。通過這些信息,德國餐廳的各方面可得到改善和提升。這可以更貼近澳門市民的整體飲食文化。問卷分為五部分,主要了解客戶各項滿意度及其各問題的詳細分析,這五部分別為響應性、產品質量、價格、環境、氣氛。在問卷調查中,澳門市民的意見將被收集和個人信息都將保密。
個人資料: 年齡:_______ 性別:_______ 學歷:_______   1. 在選擇餐廳進餐時,有甚麼吸引力可以引導你進入這間餐廳使用其服務? 2. 請問你會從哪些渠道得知一間餐廳的資訊? 3. 請問你會從哪些渠道去對一間餐廳的進行評價?
1. 響應性
4. 當你要去嘗試一間新的餐廳時,會期待有甚麼服務? 5. 當你進入一間餐廳的時候或者正在用餐的時候,請問你認為一位服務員有甚麼行為和舉動? 6. 在一間德國餐廳,你認為怎樣的服務才算是一位好員工?
1. 產品質量
7. 你會期望有哪些德國美食在一間澳門的德國餐廳? 試舉例。 8. 請問你會希望德國食物以甚麼形式去展現出來? 9. 請問平時你會用甚麼方式和平台去評價一間餐廳的食物質素? 10. 請討論一下,在澳門你對德國食物的體會和感想?
1. 價格
11. 請問食物價錢和因素會影響你選擇一間餐廳用餐嗎?
12. 在你認知中,如何得知一間餐廳的促銷活動? 13. 如果你在一間德國餐廳進餐,你會如何分配食物和酒精之間比例? (如6/4、5/5等等…) 為甚麼? 14. 除了帳單外,你會否花費更多金錢在一間餐廳嗎? (如小費) 為什麼? 15. 在澳門的德國餐廳,你認為一個怎樣定價才算合理?
1. 環境
16. 請問你認為外在環境是否會影響你在餐廳用餐嗎? 為甚麼? 17. 一間餐廳裹面,室內設計如何影響你的用餐體驗和食慾?為甚麼? 18. 一間餐廳裹面,枱的佈置和陳列品如何影響你的用餐體驗?為甚麼? 19. 一間餐廳裹面,氣氛對你的用餐體驗有多大影響?為什麼? 20. 請分享一下,德國餐廳整體環境如何影響你的用餐? 為甚麼?
1. 氣氛
21. 你認為怎樣的德國餐廳,如何令氣氛提升? 22. 你認為一間德國餐廳首要條件是甚麼? ( 如視覺、聲音、味覺、觸覺、室內溫度等等) 23. 德國餐廳是否應該有演藝/娛樂? 如果有,對用餐的意欲會否提高? 為甚麼? 24. 在德國餐廳整體上,有甚麼東西會令你很喜歡或吸引? 25. 在德國餐廳整體上,有甚麼東西會令你最討厭或反感? 26. 對於一間新的德國餐廳來說,你認為怎樣才可以提高顧客滿意度?

Appendix 3: References

Chapter one
Auty, S. (1992). Consumer choice and segmentation in the restaurant industry. Service Industries Journal12(3), 324-339.
Chathoth, P. K., & Olsen, M. D. (2007). Does corporate growth really matter in the restaurant industry? International Journal of Hospitality Management26(1), 66-80.
Gu, Z. (2002). Analyzing bankruptcy in the restaurant industry: A multiple discriminant model. International Journal of Hospitality Management21(1), 25-42.
Hua, N., & Templeton, A. (2010). Forces driving the growth of the restaurant industry in the USA. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management22(1), 56-68.
Mueller, R. D., Palmer, A., Mack, R., & McMullan, R. (2003). Service in the restaurant industry: an American and Irish comparison of service failures and recovery strategies. International Journal of Hospitality Management22(4), 395-418.
Sen, K. C. (1998). The use of franchising as a growth strategy by US restaurant franchisors. Journal of Consumer Marketing15(4), 397-407.
Tse, E. C. Y. (1991). An empirical analysis of organizational structure and financial performance in the restaurant industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management10(1), 59-72.
Upneja, A., & Dalbor, M. C. (2001). An examination of capital structure in the restaurant industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management13(2), 54-59.
Chapter two
Busch, L. (2008). Nanotechnologies, food, and agriculture: next big thing or flash in the pan? Agriculture and Human Values25(2), 215-218.
Campbell, L. M. (1999). Ecotourism in rural developing communities. Annals of tourism research26(3), 534-553.
Freitag, T. G. (1994). Enclave tourism development for whom the benefits roll? Annals of tourism research21(3), 538-554
Kotler, P., & Gertner, D. (2002). Country as brand, product, and beyond: A place marketing and brand management perspective. Journal of brand management9(4), 249-261.
Ottenbacher, M., & Harrington, R. J. (2007). The innovation development process of Michelin-starred chefs. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management19(6), 444-460.
Ottenbacher, M., & Gnoth, J. (2005). How to develop successful hospitality innovation. Cornell Restaurant and Restaurant Administration Quarterly46(2), 205-222.
Wei, S. J. (1999). Corruption in economic development: Beneficial grease, minor annoyance, or major obstacle?
Chapter Three
Ge, Y. Q., Sun, A. D., & Cai, T. Y. (2001). Study and development of wheat germ foods. JOURNAL-SHANDONG AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY32(2), 207-211.
Jones, D. B., & Widness, K. D. (2013). The comparative growth-promoting value of the proteins of wheat germ, corn germ, and of some other protein foods of plant and animal origin. The Journal of nutrition31(6), 675-683.
Jensen, M. K., Koh-Banerjee, P., Hu, F. B., Franz, M., Sampson, L., Grønbæk, M., & Rimm, E. B. (2004). Intakes of whole grains, bran, and germ and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. The American journal of clinical nutrition80(6), 1492-1499.
Jacobs Jr, D. R., & Steffen, L. M. (2003). Nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns as exposures in research: a framework for food synergy. The American journal of clinical nutrition78(3), 508S-513S.
Krings, U., & Berger, R. G. (2001). Antioxidant activity of some roasted foods. Food chemistry72(2), 223-229.
Tiziani, S., & Vodovotz, Y. (2005). Rheological characterization of a novel functional food: tomato juice with soy germ. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry53(18), 7267-7273.
Ostlund Jr, R. E., Racette, S. B., & Stenson, W. F. (2003). Inhibition of cholesterol absorption by phytosterol-replete wheat germ compared with phytosterol-depleted wheat germ. The American journal of clinical nutrition77(6), 1385-1389.
Chapter Four
Abdullah, F. et al., 2011. Managing Customer Preference for the Foodservice Industry. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 6, pp. 525-533.
Alshenqeeti, H., 2014. Interviewing as a Data Collection Method: A Critical Review. English Linguistics Research, Vol. 3, Iss. 1, pp. 39-44.
Almohaimmeed, B. M. A., 2017. Restaurant Quality and Customer Satisfaction. International Review of Management and Marketing, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 42-49.
Anderson, R., 1973. Consumer Dissatisfaction: The Effect of Disconfirmed Expectancy on Perceived Product Performance. Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 10, Iss. 2, pp. 38-44.
Ariffin, H. D. et al., 2011. Restaurant’s Atmospheric Elements: What the Customer Wants. Journal of ASIAN Behavioural Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 33-43.
Bhattacharya, C., 2009. Services Marketing. Excel Books India.
BizPlanDB, 2014. German Restaurant Business Plan. BizPlanDB.
Burney, S. M. A., 2008. Inductive & Deductive Research Approach. University of Karachi, pp. 1-21.
Carlsmith, J. & Aronson, E., 1963. Some Hedonic Consequences of the Confirmation and Disconfirmation of Expectations. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, Vol. 66, Iss. 2, pp.151-156.
Chandravati Group of Institution Bharatpur, 2017. German Cuisine. Government of India, pp. 1-5.
Chen, L.I., No Date. Brand Culture and Consumption: Chinese Consumers and the Foreign Brands. Universite d’Aix-Marseille III, pp. 1-11.
Dawes, R., et al., 1972. An Experimental Analysis of the Contrast Effect and its Implications for Intergroup Communication and Indirect Assessment of Attitude. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 21, Iss. 3, pp. 281-295.
De Mooij, M., & Hofstede, G. (2002). Convergence and divergence in consumer behavior: implications for international retailing. Journal of retailing78(1), 61-69.
De Mooij, M. (2010). Consumer behavior and culture: Consequences for global marketing and advertising. Sage.
Douglas, S. P., & Craig, C. S. (1997). The changing dynamic of consumer behavior: implications for cross-cultural research. International journal of research in marketing14(4), 379-395.
Emir, O., 2016. 2016. A study of the relationship between service atmosphere and customer loyalty with specific reference to structural equation modeling. Economic Research, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 706-720.
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015. New Perspectives in Hospitality Management. Emerald Group Publishing.
Ersanilli, E., et al., 2011. Methodology for Quantitative Data Collection. EUMAGINE Project Paper 6A, pp. 1-67.
Gao, R., 2015. Raising a glass to German beer … and cuisine. Germany, p. 4.
Giele, F., 2009. Chinese Consumer Behavior. An introduction. Luettavissa, pp. 1-8.
Goethe Universitat, 2014. Guide to German Culture, Customs and Etiquette. Goethe Welcome Centre, pp. 2-9.
Hancock, B. et al., 1998. An Introduction to Qualitative Research. Nottingham: Trent Focus Group, pp. 1-24.
Heinzelmann, U., 2008. Food Culture in Germany. Greenwood Publishing Group, pp. 1-166.
Helson, H., 1964. Adaptation – Level Theory: An Experimental and Systematic Approach to Behavior. Harper & Row.
Hill, N., et al., 2007. Customer Satisfaction: The Customer Experience Through the Customer’s Eyes. The Leadership Factor.
Hofstede, G. (2003). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Sage publications.
Ihuah, P. W. & Eaton, D., 2013. The Pragmatic Research Approach: A Framework for Sustainable Management of Public Housing Estates in Nigeria. Journal of US-China Public Administration, Vol. 10, No. 10, pp. 933-944.
Inoguchi, T. & Marsh, I., 2007. Globalisation, Public Opinion and the State: Western Europe and East and Southeast Asia. Routledge.
International Markets Bureau, 2010. The Urban Chinese Consumer. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, pp. 3-22.
Jysmä, E., 2012. The physical environment and its relevance to customer satisfaction in boutique restaurants; Restaurant Haven, Helsinki. University of Applied Science, pp. 1-85.
Kan, J. et al., 2008. Live and Work in China and Hong Kong. Crimson Publishing.
Kan, S. H., 2003. Metrics and Models in Software Quality Engineering. Addison-Wesley Professional.
Kahle, L. R., Rose, G., & Shoham, A. (2000). Findings of LOV throughout the world, and other evidence of cross-national consumer psychographics: Introduction. Journal of Euromarketing8(1-2), 1-13.
Kim, J. O., Forsythe, S., Gu, Q., & Jae Moon, S. (2002). Cross-cultural consumer values, needs and purchase behavior. Journal of Consumer marketing19(6), 481-502.
Kim, R.B., 2009. Factors Influencing Chinese Consumer Behavior When Buying Innovative Food Products. Agricultural Economics (Zeme de lská Ekonomika), Vol. 55, pp.436-445.
Kostelijk, 2016. The Influence of Values on Consumer Behavior: The value compass. Routledge.
Lacey, A. & Luff, D., 2001. Qualitative Data Analysis. Trent Focus.
Life, J. M., 2011. Life in China: My Story. Xlibris Corporation.
Lonely Planet Publications, 2017. Eating. Lonely Planet Publications, pp. 122-138.
Lukkarinen, S. & Xing, W., 2012. Luxury consumer behaviour-a comparative case study of emerging luxury markets in China and Finland. The Swedish School of Textiles, pp. 1-39.
Macleod, D. V. L., 2004. Tourism, Globalization, and Cultural Change: An Island Community Perspective. Channel View Publications
Malhotra, N. K., 2016. Marketing in and For a Sustainable Society. Emerald Group Publishing.
Meurer, W.J., et al., 2007. Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis Methods: The INSTINCT Trial. Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 14, Iss. 11, pp.1064-1071.
Mhlanga, O., et al., 2014. The Effect of Restaurant Attributes On Customers’ Expectations And Experiences In Formal Full Service Restaurants in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, Vol. 3, Iss. 1, pp. 1-12.
Ngoc, K. M. & Uyen, T. T., 2015. Factors Affecting Guest Perceived Service Quality, Product Quality, and Satisfaction–A Study of Luxury Restaurants in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Journal of Advanced Management Science, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 284-291.
Nolen, J. & Nolen, J., 2015. New German Cooking: Recipes for Classics Revisited. Chronicle Books.
Oklahoma State University, No Date. A Taste of Germany. German Cookery by Elizabeth Schuler, pp. 1-6.
Oliver, R.L. & Swan, J. E., 1989. Equity and Disconfirmation Perceptions as Influences on Merchant and Product Satisfaction. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 16, pp. 372-383.
Olsen, C. & George, D.M.M., 2004. Cross-Sectional Study Design and Data Analysis. College Entrance Examination Board, pp. 7-26.
Pansiri, J., 2005. Pragmatism: A Methodological Approach to Researching Strategic Alliances in Tourism. Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, Vol. 2, Iss. 3, pp.191-206.
Patton, M. Q. & Cochran, M., 2002. A Guide to Using Qualitative Research Methodology. Medecins Sans Frontiers, pp. 2-29.
Prothero, A., Dobscha, S., Freund, J., Kilbourne, W. E., Luchs, M. G., Ozanne, L. K., & Thøgersen, J. (2011). Sustainable consumption: Opportunities for consumer research and public policy. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing30(1), 31-38.
Reisinger, Y., & Crotts, J. C. (2010). Applying Hofstede’s national culture measures in tourism research: Illuminating issues of divergence and convergence. Journal of Travel Research49(2), 153-164.
Ransome, P., 2013. Ethics and Values in Social Research. Palgrave Macmillan.
Ramapuram, T. E. & Batra, A., No Date. The effect of restaurant attributes on customers overall perception and return patronage: A case study on Ebony restaurant, Bangalore, India. Assumption University, pp. 32-41.
Ryu, K. & Han, H., 2010. Influence of Physical Environment on Disconfirmation, Customer Satisfaction, and Customer Loyalty for First-time and Repeat Customers in Upscale Restaurants. University of Massachusetts, pp. 1-9.
Rehder, L. E., 2013. Food Service – Restaurant Restaurant Institutional Germany. Global Agricultural Information Network, pp. 1-13.
Resnik, D.B., 2011. What is Ethics in Research & Why Is It Important? National Institute of Environmental Health Science, pp. 1-9.
Sabir, R. I., et al., 2014. Customer Satisfaction in the Restaurant Industry; Examining the Model in Local Industry Perspective. Journal of Asian Business Strategy, Vol. 4, Iss. 1, pp. 18-31.
Sedgwick, P., 2014. Cross Sectional Studies: Advantages and Disadvantages. BMJ: British Medical Journal, pp. 1-2.
Soiferman, L.K., 2010. Compare and Contrast Inductive and Deductive Research Approaches. Online Submission. University of Manitoba, pp. 1-21.
Spohn, N., 2012. German Food Recipes. Hauser Publishing.
Spiggle, S. (1994). Analysis and interpretation of qualitative data in consumer research. Journal of consumer research21(3), 491-503.
Tan, Q., et al., 2014. Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in Chinese Fast Food Sector: A Proposal for CFFRSERV. Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research, Vol. 2, Iss. 1, pp. 30-53.
Valenzuela, D. & Shrivastava, P., 2002. Interview as a Method for Qualitative Research. Southern Cross University and the Southern Cross Institute of Action Research (SCIAR), pp. 1-21.
Voon, B. H., 2012. Role of Service Environment for Restaurants: The Youth Customers’ Perspective. Elsevier Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 38, pp. 388-395.
Vosloo, J.J., 2014. A Sport Management Programme for Educator Training in Accordance with the Diverse Needs of South African Schools (Doctoral Dissertation). North-West University, pp. 354-504.
Worek, R. M. et al., 2015. The Effect of Restaurant Atmosphere and Service Quality on Customer Purchase Intention (Case Study Of Danau Tondano Restaurant). Jurnal Berkala Ilmiah Efisiensi, Vol. 15, No. 05, pp. 944-952.
Xu, X., 2013. Chinese Consumer: Understand New Chinese Consumers, Their Purchasing Power, Lifestyle And Demand. Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, pp. 1-45.
Zeng, L. & Szolnoki, G., 2014. Chinese Consumer’s Perception of The Image of German Wines: Opportunities and Challenges of a Less-Known Country Of Origin. In Eighth Academy of Wine Business Research International Conference, Geisenheim, Vol. 1, pp. 1-10.
Zhou, N. & Shanturkovska, G., 2011. Chinese Consumer Behavior in the Mobile Phone Market: Nokia Case. Gotland University, pp. 6-35.
2

 

"Is this question part of your assignment? We Can Help!"